Journal of Economic Sociology <p><em>Ekonomicheskaya Sotsiologiya = <strong>Journal of Economic Sociology </strong></em>was established in 2000 as one of the first academic e-journals in Russia. It is funded by the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE; since 2007) and <a href="">Vadim Radaev</a> (Editor-in-Chief).</p> en-US (Котельникова Зоя Владиславовна) (Пашков Станислав Георгиевич) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Digital Utopia: Labour in the Age of Artificial Intelligence <p>In recent years, we have been hearing more about the growing capabilities of artificial intelligence technologies, which are invisibly but surely being introduced into our lives in all its manifestations. Will these technologies revolutionize work? Can the digital utopia be realized? British researcher Phil Jones tries to answer these and many other questions in his book Work Without the Worker: Labour in the Age of Platform Capitalism. Jones invites the reader to look at the reverse and very unsightly side of the digital utopia. The focus of the research is microwork, realized in the form of the so-called “human intelligence task” (HIT) or “artificial artificial intelligence” (AAI). The purpose of the book is to show that it is the poorly paid and mentally destructive tasks performed by humans that make our digital lives more convenient and understandable, and not the functioning of artificial intelligence algorithms. The author analyzes the work of the “Mechanical Turk” service employees and its negative consequences, for example, the lack of guaranteed work and its payment, alienation, and an increasing number of psychological problems. The review presents the key provisions of the book: it describes the specifics of the MTurk service and the reasons for the author’s interest in this platform. It reveals Jones’s understanding of the term “microwork”, its main characteristics, and features of work, considers the factors that make it difficult to protest in the age of platform capitalism, outlines new utopia, and contains some critical remarks. The conclusion is that Jones’s book can be recommended reading for anyone interested in labour issues in the contemporary world.</p> Tatiana Martynenko Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Conceptual Approaches to the Study of Spatial Inequality: the Case of Russian Education <p>In Russia, the sheer size of the country and the diversity of its socio-demographic and economic contexts are factors that greatly shape educational outcomes and student opportunities. Current research on the spatial context of educational inequality is insufficient. There is a risk of underestimation of importance of spatial differences and the challenges they create for researchers and policymakers in the field of education. The purpose of this work is to analyze the existing conceptual approaches to the study of spatial inequality in Russian education. This paper present two conceptual approaches to understanding spatial inequality, and, respectively, two different answers to the question of whether socio-economic differences between territories is the main factor in educational inequality. Much of the existing research on educational inequality in Russia follows the spirit, if not the letter, of “geography of opportunity,” in which spatial inequality is the geographic dimension of social segregation. This approach implies that due to the historically uneven distribution of economic capital in space, geography is becoming a significant factor that limits students’ opportunities in terms of access to educational resources, choice of trajectory and educational achievement. However, this does not take into account the more complex social hierarchy of space, which is described in the works of Bourdieu and his followers. This second approach opens up prospects for studying the symbolic status of space, as well as the spatial capital of individuals, organizations, and the territories themselves. The approaches described in this article introduce new opportunities for educational researchers and pose a number of challenges for educational policy in Russia. This paper also shows the possibilities of operationalizing these concepts for transferring them to the field of education.</p> Ksenia Adamovich Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p>Dear colleagues, Events that started on February 24, 2022 brought radical changes to Russia and the whole world. Both academic activity and daily life have become much more uncertain and complicated. Quite quickly, many members of the&nbsp; nternational Board cancelled their affiliations with our Journal. We really appreciate the attitude of those who did not cancel their cooperation with us on the basis of our nationality. Despite all expected difficulties, we have to fulfil our professional duties and present to you the next issue of our journal.</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 “3D-model” of the Russian Economy <p>The review considers the results of a study implemented in 2020—early 2021, and reflected in the presented collective monograph. It is shown that the applied approach (macroeconomic analysis in combination with the mezzo-level analysis of each of the industries and at the level of individual firms) enabled showing an ambiguous reaction to the pandemic of different companies and the new risks and opportunities associated with it in six sectors of the Russian economy, and in the global context of the development of the relevant sectors in the world economy. In particular, the trends of the previous development, as well as the situation in the first period of the pandemic and after the initial recovery, as well as possible trajectories of further development in retail trade, IT, the tourism sector, pharmaceutical production, automotive industry and the chemical industry are considered. The resulting picture allows us to better understand both the opportunities and limitations of further development, as well as the challenges and possible junctions the Russian state policy is facing. In the book they are presented as follows: (1) the further increase in the already high internal and interregional divergence (regarding the technological development, productivity, profitability, etc.) in sectors with vertical coordination; (2) the further digitalization, which in sectors with developed horizontal ties will entail updating business models and formats; (3) the increased role of intangible assets of companies (knowledge, skills), growing competition both within and between industries for human capital; (4) health, safety, nutrition, and entertainment will become the core drivers of the economy.<br>In conclusion, critical remarks are formulated: underestimation of the specifics of the pandemic as an extraeconomic shock, in comparison with typical economic crises (and models for overcoming them); the need to analyze the general trends in the global and Russian economies in the context of the downward wave of the current long economic cycle; compositional difficulties of the monograph.</p> Alexander Chepurenko Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Interview with Samantha King <p>The interview with professor Samantha King, the author of the famous Pink Ribbons, Inc: Breast Cancer and the Politics of Philanthropy (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006), reveals her current studies within the field of cultural politics of health, sport and the body. Samantha introduces her research group in Queen’s University that critically looks at the healthification of market and political processes when social control, inequality and power asymmetry are pursued under the super value of health. She describes how her team uses the genealogical method by M. Foucault to reconstruct the dynamics of historical, ideological, economic, social agendas that shape local judgments about fruitful cultural frames for corporate charity, medicalized performance in professional sport, and painkiller use by people from different social classes. King’s Group studies criticize discourses about individual responsibility and good citizenship as those that may welcome getting pills into bodies instead of transforming the economic and social contexts out of which the disease arises. In the interview, Samantha traces the changes in anti-cancer philanthropy in recent years, comments on the political struggles behind the COVID-19 pandemic and points to the the hidden layers of the protein supplements market challenged by the post-humanistic ban on eating animals, emerging laboratory-meat supply, and ecological concern. The interview with Samantha King as well as her scientific articles will be useful for those who reflect on the incorporation of the human body and subjectivity into capitalistic production in different geopolitical realms.</p> Samantha King Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Conspiracy Thinking: Concept, Measurement and Factors <p>The article provides an overview of the literature on conspiracy thinking. Although there is no consensus on the definition of this concept, as a rule, researchers pay attention to the following similar aspects: belief in secret and covert actions, a group of interested persons influencing world processes or hiding information about something, the false or implausible nature of conspiracy theories. There are two fundamentally different approaches to measuring conspiracy thinking: (1) in terms of agreement with several real conspiracy theories, (2) in general terms, without reference to specific conspiracy theories. Each of these approaches has serious limitations, both specific (for example, the arbitrariness of the choice of conspiracy theories for the first approach and the lack of one-dimensionality of the scales for the second), and general (the difficulty of using the scales in comparative international studies). The article provides examples of scales that correspond to each of the approaches. Factors influencing belief in conspiracy theories can be divided into psychological and social. Conspiracy beliefs are more common in people with high anxiety, low self-esteem and less developed analytical skills. In addition, conspiracy theories are more often believed by people with low social status and educational level, low level of generalized and political trust, belonging to the ends of the ideological spectrum, and consuming information from glossy magazines and social networks. The role of age and religiosity is less straightforward.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Anastsia Kazun Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The Role of Social Media in the Adaptation of Russians Working in Precarious Labour Markets in Korea and China <p>How do migrants use social media to adapt to new social conditions, including those in the labour market? Does it matter which social media and how many of them are available for migrants? Answering these questions, we focus on particular social groups—Russian citizens engaged in precarious work in China and South Korea. These labour market segments have hardly been described in the academic literature, mainly because such migrant flows are not observable in the receiving or sending country. As a rule, these people do not have legal migration status (they do not have work permits, long-term residence permits, insurance, and other necessary documents). We aim to compare two situations—the Korean one, where different social media (WhatsApp, VK, Viber, and others) are available to migrants, and the Chinese one, where WeChat dominates, and hence, in so doing to understand what happens in the context of one dominant media. In addition to analyzing work requests and job vacancies published in social media (WeChat, VK, Telegram, WhatsApp), we use in-depth interviews with precarious workers (23 interviews obtained in China and 31 in Korea).</p> Natalya Ryzhova, Tatiana Zhuravskaya Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Online Dating: Market or Bazaar? The Marriage Partner Search Process on an Orthodox Dating Site <p>According to a number of researchers, in view of the marketization of culture, the processes of searching for and choosing a romantic partner have taken on the characteristics of a market which becomes especially apparent in case of online dating platforms [Heino Ellison, Gibbs 2010; Schmitz 2017]. The logic of religious dating platforms, where the proclaimed goal is to find a spouse once and for good, may conflict with the market integration logic of a platform itself. In this study, based on the in-depth semi-structured interviews with 18-35-year-old Orthodox online dating platform users from Moscow and the Moscow region, the objective is to identify the form of integration that is suitable for describing the search for a couple on this site. Firstly, the search for a partner is studied through G. Akerlof's perspective as search on the market so that the website’s questionnaire and photos are treated as institutional mechanisms used to tackle the problem of imperfect information and the quality uncertainty. Secondly, the search process in hand is considered as a bazaar in line with C. Geertz’s argument where messaging is bargaining, and users, motivated by the desire to find a soulmate, aim at clientelization. Finally, the authors infer that the bazaar perspective is more relevant for describing the search process in the considered case. In conclusion, the market angle itself is problematized, and attention is also paid to the functioning of the platforms in general.</p> Kristina Galitsina, Polina Kalinovskaya, Olga Khvorostianova Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Why Demography Matters (excerpt) <p>Demography is not destiny. As Giacomo Casanova explained over two centuries ago: ‘There is no such thing as destiny. We ourselves shape our own lives.’ Today we are shaping them and our societies more than ever before. Globally, we have never had fewer children per adult: our population is about to stabilize, though we do not know when or at what number, or what will happen after that. It will be the result of billions of very private decisions influenced in turn by multiple events and policies, some more unpredictable than others. More people are moving further around the world than ever before: we too often see that as frightening, rather than as indicating greater freedom. Similarly, we too often lament greater ageing, rather than recognizing it as a tremendous human achievement with numerous benefits to which we must adapt. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the chapter eight “Population and Politics,” where the authors discuss the political demography. Here they address eugenics, in both its historical and contemporary manifestations, and then look again at migration and past fertility patterns that may influence it.</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Self-Employment, Secondary Jobholding, and Labor Income Inequality <p>Using data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey from 2000 to 2014, this study analyzes the evolution of various sources of labor income: salaried employment in a primary job, self-employment in a primary job, secondary employment, and irregular earnings. The composition of income sources reflects the strategies of adaptation to economic shocks, institutional changes, and technological innovations. The paper contributes to the debates about the precarization of employment and, more broadly, to the development of sociological views about social class structure. The importance of salaried employment in a single job markedly increased between 2000 and 2014, both as the share of the workforce and as the fraction of total labor incomes. Simultaneously, the prevalence of secondary job holding and irregular work activities declined, which indicates the stabilization of the social structure. The results show that additional labor incomes and total labor income are distributed less evenly than earnings from a primary job. The observed changes in the structure of employment are associated with a 7–8% reduction in labor income inequality, which exceeds the contribution of changes in the education structure or population aging. Multiple jobholding retains its role as a source of social differentiation, despite a significant reduction in its incidence.</p> Anna L. Lukyanova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 A Guide for Market-Based Interventions and Public Problems <p>Is it possible to apply economic mechanisms to solve public problems, especially sensitive and morally rooted ones? Can markets effectively and fairly regulate social issues in the public policy field? During the last several decades, with the spread of market mechanisms in the social order, theoreticians and practitioners have been searching for market-based interventions. While a significant body of literature criticizes neoliberalism for its limitations and contradictions, the collective of the sociologists Daniel Neyland, Véra Ehrenstein, and Sveta Milyaeva suggest in their book Can Markets Solve Problems? An Empirical Study of Neoliberalism in Action problematizing not only the role of the market in the implementation of government interventions but also the very definition of the market—its constituent relationships, practices, meanings, and calculative devices. Drawing on science and technology studies (STS), the authors propose looking behind the processes of market assembly work and investigating how in the course of market-based interventions social problems, entities, and relationships are shaped, transformed, and allow the achievement of certain results in public policy. Based on the empirical materials of an extensive ethnographic study (legal and historical documents and semi-structured interviews with experts, managers, and stakeholders), the authors use six empirical cases to illustrate how competition, investment and return, property, trade and exchange, incentives, and selling can, in practice, not only become instruments of market-based intervention but also shape and redefine the subject matter itself. The book will be of interest and beneficial to researchers in the field of sociology of markets as a source of rich descriptions of markets, which generally constitute a subject of active government regulation and which become a platform for the symbolic struggle of various market actors.</p> Daria R. Lebedeva Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 A Theory of Fields (Excerpt) <p>The central goal of this book is to explicate an integrated theory that explains how stability and change are achieved by social actors in circumscribed social arenas. The theory rests on a view that sees strategic action fields, which can be defined as mesolevel social orders, as the basic structural building blocks of modern political/organizational life in the economy, civil society, and the state. In constructing a new perspective, the authors draw upon the rich body of integrative scholarship produced by economic sociologists, institutional theorists in both sociology and political science, and social movement scholars. The Journal of Economic Sociology is pleased to publish the first chapter, “The Gist of It.” In this chapter, the authors sketch the basic features of this perspective in some detail, differentiating the new elements from the old, including Bourdieu, Giddens, institutional theory, network analysis, and social movement theory.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Neil Fligstein, Doug Mcadam Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p><strong>Dear colleagues,</strong><br>After the pleasant Christmas vacation, we are back to our routines. Universities have returned to conventional teaching of their classes, although nobody knows whether we will be able to keep these activities offline, given that a new strain of coronavirus, Omicron, is spreading around the world.</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Throwing Food Away and Food Rescue Practices in Russia (Microlevel Analysis) <p>About one-third of all food produced in the world is thrown away. The higher the development level of the country, the more this practice is contributed to by microlevel actors, i.e., consumers (households). Food waste is a serious environmental, economic, social, and ethical issue, and a search for effective ways to alleviate this issue conforms to sustainable development goals. The problem is systemic, and its theoretical conceptualization follows this path. However, some aspects of this problem have not been examined equally: one of its least studied aspects is the relationship between (not) throwing food away, on the one hand, and actual food rescue practices implemented by consumers, on the other. Capturing this relationship is important for understanding both the nature of the food waste phenomenon and the comparative role of various recovery practices, including new ones (e.g. peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing), and the civil society potential in alleviating the waste issue. Based on a representative survey (N = 2,000 respondents, November 2020), the levels and factors of Russians’ engagement in groups with different attitudes toward throwing food away have been identified (“not throwing away food,” “throwing away edible food,” and “throwing away spoiled food”). We used regression analysis to estimate the relationship between the probability of being included in any of these groups and the involvement in various food rescue practices (feeding animals and food waste composting, extending the shelf life of products, and donating unneeded food to others, including P2P food sharing). It has been shown that consumers using social channels for food rescue (both practicing food sharing and not), ceteris paribus, are less likely to throw away edible food and more likely to throw away spoiled food (at least during the pandemic, although probably this is not so much due to the pandemic). Conclusions are made about the importance of combining social rescue practices with other types of food rescue and about the potential of civil society in mitigating the issue.</p> Marina A. Shabanova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Social Mobility of Russians in Terms of Life Chances and Risks <p>This paper focuses on the issues of social mobility and immobility of Russians in the neo-Weberian stratification hierarchy of Russian society, based on indicators of life chances. Social mobility is interpreted as a transition between three mass strata. Trajectories of mobility (rates and factors) are analyzed using the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) panel data of a six-year interval from 2013 to 2018 and the group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) method. It is shown that a quarter of Russians moved between strata. Mobility usually occurs over a short distance. Cases of significant life changes that would lead to transition between polar strata (low and high) are exceptions to the rule. The chances of getting into polar strata depend on the quality of human potential and, as a result, on individuals’ places in the system of industrial relations. Only highly qualified Russians with good health, who also originate from highly educated families, have high chances of getting into positively privileged (high) strata. For these Russians, composite rents work. Risks of moving down to low strata are present for Russians with low education, bad health and parents with low education, mainly due to employment in bad job positions that violate employees’ rights. The paper shows that social background continues to play a significant role in shaping chances of social wellbeing and mobility. It also draws attention to the fact that skills in use of information technology form a new basis for inequality between people.</p> Ekaterina D. Slobodenyuk Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Fieldwork Challenges Stemming from Doing Studies in Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) <p>This article presents the authors’ self-reflections on the challenges they faced as researchers during their long-term study of the illegal wildlife trade of sturgeon meat and caviar and Caspian seals’ skins and oil that they carried out from 2012 to 2019. The authors focus on the following main topics: personal health and security issues resulting from the activities of the police and the Federal Security Service, the recruitment and training of local assistants and university students, intergenerational and gender gaps that exhibit a strong influence on the development of trust between researchers and respondents, the network density of market dynamics and speed of communication through the market, and the shift in environmental legal regulations as an influence on current studies. In addition, the authors stress the lack of appropriate infrastructure to conduct systemic data collection and local populations’ unawareness of research fieldwork on social and economic issues ever undertaken in the areas under study. The authors show that for the study of informal economy activities to prove successful, several points should be identified: first, the formation of identity to be considered acceptable in the local community so that the researcher is perceived as a member of the community; second, the influence of gender boundaries on research driven by the ever-increasing complexity of social interactions set in different social and cultural contexts; and, third, time and funding as two of the most important things that should be taken into account when planning field studies, depending on how strong the illegality is and whether assistants are ready to face “others” from their own community.</p> Ilya V. Ermolin, Linas Svolkinas, Simon J. Goodman, George Holmes, Pavel Suvorkov Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0300 High-Quality Donor: Criteria for the Selection of Gamete Donors in the Russian Field of Assisted Reproductive Technologies <p>The emergence of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) has been one of the groundbreaking solutions to the problem of infertility, but these technologies involve interference with the natural process of giv¬ing birth to a child. In this study, we answer the question of whether we can talk about attempts by parents to influence the "quality" of their child in ART through the mechanism of choosing gamete donors. The theoretical analysis considers the concept of the "quality" of biomaterial in the context of the commodification of vital goods as well as the problem of kinship associated with the transformation of family relations as a result of the application of ARTs. Foreign studies have confirmed the attempt to influence the "quality" of the child through the choice of donors with certain characteristics. However, in the Russian context of social conservatism, previous studies have found interference in the ge¬netics of a child to be unacceptable. The aim of this work is to explore how the possibilities of controlling the "quality" of a child are distributed between doctors and infertile couples as well as the hidden social grounds behind the criteria used for choosing a donor. The focus of the study is on the representatives of reproductive centers and sperm and egg banks in Moscow. The strategies for selecting respondents were targeted selection and the snowball method, with the database consisting of fifteen semi-struc¬tured interviews.<br>The analysis revealed that potential parents are included in the ART process as actors whose actions are subordinate to those of medical centers . The image of a "high-quality" donor is formed through the prism of certain requirements put forward to donors by ART centers and then transmitted to parents. In addition, the study found a tendency in the desire of potential parents to influence the "quality" of their child—not in an absolute but a relative sense—to have a child of the same "quality" as themselves.</p> Anastasia Grishanina, Alexandra Narskaya, Polina Smirnova Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Problem of Defining the Essence of Money in Contemporary Economic Sociology: Between the State and Trust <p>The article considers the problem of defining the essence of money, which is one of the main problems in the contemporary sociology of money. This problem cannot be explained using the neoclassical economic analysis of money, in particular, the evolutionary theory of money by Menger. The main idea of this approach is that the origins of money should be found in the reducing cost of exchange based on the rationality of economic agents. Consequently, the universality of money and its spatial spread have remained unexplained (including temporary uncertainty and the use of money in the future). The paper presents two approaches—by Ingham and Dodd—to defining the essence of money. Considerable attention is paid to classic works in the field written by Simmel and Keynes. From the analy¬sis, we see that the main features distinguishing monetary exchange from other forms of exchange (including barter) can be found in Simmel's The Philosophy of Money. Simmel also provided two solutions on how to de¬fine money: the state's production of credit money or trust in money from society. Ingham developed the first solution and singled out the state's pro¬duction of credit (and the creation of money as account). Meanwhile, Dodd insisted on the fiduciary component of the financial system as a crucial element. Both authors used the metaphor of money as an idea or process embedded in social relations, which contrasts the commodity metaphor in¬troduced by Menger. The main assertion of the article is that the metaphor of money as an idea corresponds to the proposition that the basic function of money is the measure of value (money of account), or store of value, while the neoclassical model suggests that the commodity metaphor of money and its unit of exchange function are crucial. In addition, contemporary theories of money introduce the distinction between money as account (which is more abstract) and particular forms of money (which can be named money stuff). Similarities and contradictions between the two solutions to the problem of uncertainty— by Ingham and Dodd—are also presented in the article.</p> Egor Makarov, Dmirtry Tikhomirov Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 "Digital Rush": In Search of Balance between Professional and Market Logics in Web Journalism <p>A book written by French-born American sociologist Angele Christin, Metrics at Work: Journalism and the Contested Meaning of Algorithms, is devoted to the specificities of the functioning of publications during the traffic-chase era. The book's main goal is to show how the implementation of algorithms affects the professional identity and working practices of journalists. The scholar uses a multi-stage theoretical framework as she turns to Bour- dieu's concept of field, the sociology of "Worlds" by Boltanski and Thevenot, the theory of institutional isomorphism proposed by DiMaggio and Powell, and other relevant approaches examined in The New Economic Sociology. The book is based on a comparative study of two web publications in the United States and France during the period 2011-2015. The author uses a mixed methodology whose core is comprised of observation and semi- structured interviews with the staff of media organizations. Referring to the broad empirical material, Christin wonders whether metrics are really able to eradicate dis-tinctions between national mass media in different countries. Although the two web publications face similar challenges in terms of modern journalism, they tackle them in different ways. This is due to the embeddedness of the professional activity of journalists in the institutional context, organizational structures, and profes-sional fields. The review raises the key issues of the book: a brief history of the formation of web journalism in the United States and France, the media organizations' perception of metrics and audience, and the role of independent professionals in news production.</p> Liudmila Bogomazova Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 24/7. Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep (an excerpt) <p>24/7: Late Capitalism and the Ends of Sleep explores some of the ruinous consequences of the expansion of non-stop processes of twenty-first-century capitalism. The marketplace now operates around the clock, pushing us into constant activity and eroding forms of community and political expression, damaging the fabric of everyday life.&nbsp;In his book, Crary examines how this interminable non-time blurs any separa­tion between an intensified, ubiquitous consumerism and emerging strategies of control and surveillance. He describes the ongoing management of indi­vidual attentiveness and the impairment of perception within the compulsory routines of our contemporary technological culture. At the same time, he shows that human sleep—a restor­ative withdrawal that is intrinsically incompatible with 24/7 capitalism—points to other more formidable and collective refusals of world-destroying patterns of growth and accumulation.&nbsp;The Journal of Economic Sociology will publish the first chapter of this book, which engages in a discussion of the reasons for sleep erosion and its connection to the dynamics of modern capitalism. Crary also alludes to the main threats of the 24/7 world and the possible human consequences.</p> Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Precedence and Conspicuousness in Car Consumption <p>We study how the availability of bank loans feeds excessive consump¬tion, including the acquisition of goods for the sake of appearances. The aim of the paper is to review the institutions of consumer behavior and borrowing behavior, which have taken root due to consumer lending, in the case of auto loans in the Rostov region, Russia. We rely on material and statistical data from 2002-2020 from a variety of sources, including the Central Bank of Russia, Rosstat, National Bureau of Credit Histories (NBCH JSC), traffic police, etc. We build and estimate metrics featuring household borrowing behavior with regard to auto loans. The empirical results suggest a habitualization of the precedence of consumption (a term borrowed from Jean Baudrillard), including debt-driven ostenta¬tious consumption. Borrowed money closes the gap between the cost of affordable cars and that of sought-after cars under the influence of socially induced criteria. Household spending on these items grew in ab¬solute and relative terms. Our theoretical contribution is that we integrate the elements of several theories, namely, the concept of the precedence of consumption from sociology, osten-tatious consumption from institutional theory, the social significance of banks as creditors, the socio-economic consequences of financialization, etc. Unlike some other authors, we extend the concept of ostentatious con¬sumption to practically all goods, depending on the motivation that drives an individual, instead of confining it to luxury goods purchases by high-net-worth individuals. The contribution to the empirical literature is that we operationalize theoretical constructs in order to quantify them using factual data on auto loans. We conclude that the concepts of the precedence of consumption and ostentatious consumption remain valuable instruments in enabling us to interpret a number of empirical effects of financialization at the household level.</p> Andreyi Vernikov, Anna Kurysheva Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Land Use Regulations: Legally Fluid Technology <p>Urban law is changeable, and its changes may be associated with those in the material environment of the city as well as those in legal instruments. Conse¬quently, the law itself is unstable. Two types of changes are associated with two types of conflict in urban law: conflicts of norms and property rights. The coordination of the two types of conflict means that urban law is decidedly technical. Therefore, the established methods of analyzing urban law, which emphasize the distinction between formal and informal relations, do not work to explain the ways of city law. According to the hypothesis of the study, urban law does not act as a normative or political tool but as an "unstable technique" (a term used de Laet and Mol) that unites a bundle of normative styles. In exemplifying the unstable technique of law, the article considers a local docu¬ment of Russian urban regulation—Rules of Land Use and Development (PZZ). The research material was collected in the spring of 2021 in two Russian regional cities named in the text: Frontier City and Factory City. In the empirical part, two cases are analyzed. Changes in the PZZ that affect the material form of the city are described as moving objects that go through a series of negotiations and approvals. For legal changes in the context of the PZZ that affect the structure of the document and its normative styles, the study shows how such changes can be integrated into the existing structure of the PZZ. As a result, we see that the two cities work with material and legal changes in different ways, but both types of changes are irreducible to each other: the transformation of one into the other will lead to the destruction of the existing social order. This type of trans¬formation, which Lo calls non-homeomorphic, sets the structure of the variability of PZZ and urban law and determines their topological nature, built on the ongoing switching between different normative styles.</p> Nataliya Volkova Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Editor’s Foreword <p>Dear colleagues,<br>By the end of this year, we will be facing the next wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, but we do anticipate a<br>better future. The barriers are still in place, and many students have returned to online education once again.<br>However, this does not affect the publication of a new issue of our journal.</p> Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Editor’s Foreword <p>Dear colleagues,&nbsp;We hope that this new academic year will lead to easing restrictions and removing barriers. Let us present a new issue of our journal.</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Skinner's Box for the Consumer <p>The review signifies the key ideas of the book by Shoshanna Zuboff, who indicates the rise of a new form of capitalism called surveillance capital­ism. This economic order is dominated by commercial IT companies, with a power advantage anchored in the monopoly for the means of behavior modification. Algorithms track the personal experience of users, while the scientific processing of these data opens unprecedented opportunities for the prediction of human feelings, desires, and decisions that transform new digi­tal certainty into an inexhaustible source of economic and political profit. Zuboffs research constructs a conceptual language for assessing the quality of a social order that is performatively produced by surveillance capital­ism. The author criticizes the new economic system for breaking away from democratic principles. Control over human life, which can be achieved with modern information technology, is overarching. Recently, the massive expansion of consumer markets has fostered democratization and personalization. Surveillance capitalism involves objectifying a unique person to an anonymous Internet user and beginning to make money not out of consumer needs but by selling aggre­gated information about human behavior that can be used in consumer demand management. The fundamental message of the book is that European society is again risking its humanistic ideals for monetary gain. The book proves this message with the author's eight-year ethnography in the field of global technology corporations. Field results are assessed against the postulates of social behaviorism. The review reveals the experience of reading Sh. Zuboff's book in the context of the exploitation of man by man in modern European society. Researchers who compare different forms of capitalism with each other, think about the digitalization of the social order, or care about the challenges for human rights under different economic regimes will find the book thought-provoking and, therefore, useful.</p> Elena Berdysheva Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 How the Sense of Community Arises in Marriage: The Logic of Mutuality in the Narratives of Women from Large Families <p>In the proposed article, based on in-depth interviews with women in large families, the author discusses the following hypothesis: in families where, as children are born, conjugality does not give way to household and parenthood, a sense of community in marriage is enhanced. This arises in families where a man, as children are born, becomes more involved in relations with his wife and children, and the relations are developed in the logic of mutuality. Using the results of 22 in-depth interviews with women in large families from Moscow, Arkhangelsk, and Vladimir, the author objectifies this logic by the category of the "mutual sacrifice of the spouse," which indicates the wife's confidence in unmitigated communion and support from her husband. In the social sciences, this category is similar to the concept of the reciprocal gift. Gift commitment theory emphasizes the fundamental distinction between the material and perceived spiritual sides of the exchange, which helps to explain why, despite the factual workload and vulnerability of the mother, which grows as the children are born, she perceives married life in terms of friendship with her husband and community in the family. In conclusion, the author proposes that the logic of mutuality in marriage can become a fruitful source for reflection on the division of labor between the sexes, as opposed to the logics of justice and independence.</p> Ivan Pavlyutkin Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Venture Capitalism, High-Technology Financing and the State's Innovation Policy: A Sociological Analysis of the U.S. Experience (1940s-2010s) <p>This paper reviews the theoretical and research literature on venture capi¬talism. The major approaches to the study of venture financing and its institutional forms are considered against the background of the experi¬ence of the U.S., where this industry exists the longest. Economists ana¬lyze venture capital as an institutional response either to the failure of the market for knowledge or to the failure of the market for entrepreneurial finance. Economic sociologists complement this analysis by emphasiz¬ing venture capital firms' role in socializing technological entrepreneurs, indirect financing of innovation ecosystems, and risk management. In the more recent literature inspired by critical political economy and economic history, this functionalist, market-failure type of argument is increasingly called into question because of its insufficient attention to the role of the state in creating and maintaining the venture capital industry. Based on this literature, the paper illustrates the connection between the genesis of the venture capital industry in the U.S. and the evolution of the devel¬opmental state in post-war U.S. In conclusion, this paper discusses insti¬tutional alternatives to venture capital and the applicability of the U.S. experience to other contexts.</p> Dmitrii Zhikharevich Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 To Reassemble Capitalism: Economic Sociology and its "Political Unconscious" <p>The article offers a commentary on the discussion of the article "Politi­cal Economy after Neoliberalism" by Fligstein and Vogel, published in the current issue of the Journal of Economic Sociology. The authors draw the attention of Russian-speaking readers to the fact that the work of American researchers not only problematizes the content of political debates in the United States, but also shapes the basic principles of eco­nomic and sociological analysis of various economic systems in their connection with regulation policies and public control. Arguments are given in favor of the fact that the article by Fligstein and Vogel is a kind of manifesto of new economic sociology, demonstrating its "political unconscious"—a number of axiomatic assumptions about the function­ing of the capitalist political economy, arising from the research per­spective of economic sociology and related disciplines. The structure of the argument proposed in the article includes an analysis of several theoretical and empirical directions: a discussion about the varieties of empirical models of capitalism and statements about the political na­ture of choice of the institutional architecture of economies, the ways of organizing relations between corporations and society, and the role of the state in the economy. The authors note that the so-called neoliberal turn in social and economic policy in recent years was partly based on the purely intellectual principle in mainstream economic theory that opposes states and markets. Studies in the field of economic sociology, history, and comparative political economy demonstrate the fallacy of this statement, offering a conceptual resource for rethinking modern capitalism.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dmitrii Zhikharevich, David Khumaryan Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Political Economy after Neoliberalism <p>The Journal of Economic Sociology has published an article, "Political Economy after Neoliberalism," by one of the most influential figures in the tradition of New Economic Sociology, Neil Fligstein, and economic historian and comparative political economy scientist Steven Vogel. The article, originally published in Boston Review, was re-posted on the web¬site of the professional online community Economic Sociology &amp; Politi¬cal Economy (ES/PE) and became one of the most-read texts in 2020. The authors offer a broad review of the current literature in the realm of eco¬nomic sociology, economic history, and political economy, and articulate a theoretical and practical alternative to the mainstream economic view of the nature of markets and the role of the state regulation of the economy. The text explores the causes and consequences of the crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic and highlights the relationship between the crisis management measures adopted in different countries, their institutional arrangements, and the current balance of power. Fligstein and Vogel define three theoretical principles of the new political economy and then dem-onstrate its heuristic potential by analyzing the responses to the pandemic by the authorities and the United States and German markets. Strong at¬tention is paid to the analysis of the practical consequences of the politi¬cal economy project proposed by the authors: according to Fligstein and Vogel, accumulated knowledge allows the social sciences to participate in determining the preferred development scenarios of modern capitalism.</p> Neil Fligstein, Steven Vogel Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Imagination, Uncertainty and Business Strategies of Russian Companies in the Field of Medical Devices <p>High-tech innovation is often understood as creating new worlds and tra¬jectories of development and generating uncertainty. On the basis of 15 interviews with the heads of Russian medical technology companies, the paper presents the different types of uncertainties faced by med-tech entre¬preneurs. Is the lack of exact knowledge about the results of the develop¬ment and implementation of new technologies (a classic type of uncer¬tainty in the innovation sector) perceived by entrepreneurs as a difficulty? Or do they deal with uncertainties of another type, for example, related to the political and economic context in the country? What business models are emerging in the industry for regional companies? What is the role of expectations and the imagination in the work of the company director or R &amp; D engineers? How is this related to the specifics of the health industry? As a theoretical basis, the concepts of uncertainty in the innovation sector, as well as uncertainty associated with the rules of the game set by political and economic institutions, are considered. The strategies of innova¬tive entrepreneurs in conditions of uncertainty are investigated using the concept of the imaginary in the ver¬sion of science and technology studies (STS). This research identifies four business models of hi-tech entre¬preneurs in Russia: Small deal supporters, Revolutionaries, Conformists, and Isolationists. In the development of medical equipment, it is important that the main customers of medical devices in Russia are state-owned hospitals. One of the most winning strategies for Russian entrepreneurs is the use of ambiguity, i.e., to second- guess the agenda set by government agencies and use official rhetoric in negotiations with officials. One might have expected that, especially in such a situation, imaginaries might be a vehicle for innovation. However, uncertainty about rules and ambiguity in political priorities results in an imaginary drama—imaginaries in med-tech companies do not exist, and neither does innovation.</p> Evgeniya Popova Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Field Experiments and the Rubin Causal Model: Review of Approaches and Current Research <p>Experiments of various kinds are increasingly being used in the social sciences to derive causal inference. Among the varieties of this method, field experiments are especially noteworthy. Explosive growth in their numbers has been observed in recent years, primarily in economics and political science. Gradually, field experimentation is starting to spread to other disciplines. One of the most important reasons for this is the popu­larization of the so-called Donald Rubin model of causal inference, which allows researchers to link experimental methods with statistics and other mathematical methods. In the Russian-speaking academic field, one can observe a lack of texts describing how field experiments are related to this model in causal inference, while such a research design allows us to focus specifically on the search for the causality of various social phe­nomena. This article provides a critical-bibliographic review of both the conceptual model of causation and the existing research carried out in the design of field experiments in the Rubin model. The first part of the paper provides a brief overview of the main paradigms of causation and how, from one of them (the approach of potential outcomes and counterfactual inference), the Rubin model logically arises. The following describes the milestones in the history of field ex­periments before the Rubin model. This is followed by a description of the model and today's debate about the advantages, limitations, and design features of the field experiment. Finally, with a few examples, we analyze several well-known field experiments to illustrate the operation of the described method.</p> Dmitrii Serebrennikov, Julia Kuzmina Copyright (c) Fri, 01 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Can We Explain Differences in Patterns of Alcohol Consumption? Review of Theoretical Approaches <p>Alcohol is an important part of the culture of many people, and the patterns of its consumption differ according to the types of drinks people drink, in what circumstances they drink, what kind of meaning drinking offers them, etc. In this article, we decided to classify publications on differences in drinking patterns based on a dominant idea. We highlight the criteria for identifying such patterns: quantitative (depending on the volume and frequency of consumption) and qualitative (depending on the chosen drinks, circumstances, and motives for use). The quantitative criteria make it possible to identify frequently used patterns, such as episodic alcohol consumption in large quantities, binge drinking, sporadic drinking, and light and heavy drinking. Within the framework of the qualitative criteria, Northern, Southern, and Central European types are often distinguished. The emphasis on consumption motives reveals four patterns: reinforcement, coping, conformity, and community. However, researchers tend to understand what explains the differences in consumption patterns. Therefore, in the second part of the article, we turn to the systematization of such explanations based on cultural-anthropological, historical, and structural approaches. In the last part of our article, we show that the approaches we have identified allow us to explain the features of alcohol consumption patterns in Russia and their changes over the past several decades. It can be concluded that the most productive way of analyzing alcohol consumption is the complex application of the approaches we have considered—the identification of patterns based on various criteria and the explanation of their choice by different highlighted approaches.</p> Valeria Kondratenko, Yana Roschina Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The End of Bureaucracy? New Organizational Forms, Social Media, and Millennials <p class="text">In recent years, Silicon Valley startups have become some of the most successful corporations in the world. They advance the abandonment of bureaucratic control of employees, for example, they do not keep track of what time employees come to work or what they are wearing, and instead delegate decision-making rights to employees and are attentive to their opinions. But what happens behind the closed doors of those companies promoting such openness and the overthrow of the hierarchy and bureaucratic rules? How and by whom are they controlled? The book by Catherine J. Turco (2016) shows how corporate communication, culture, and control actually work in a company run by millennials reared on social media. During her ethnographic research, Turco describes how a new organizational form she calls a “conversational firm” has arisen and succeeded in solving business problems due to cross-hierarchical communication. One of Turko’s main findings is that subverting the hierarchical control of communication does not mean the hierarchical structure of decision making must fall as well. Thus, employees may prefer some bureaucratic practices and insist on them.</p> Daria Asaturyan Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Effects of Modernization on Social Capital: Evidence from Dagestan <p>The paper scrutinizes the differences between the traditional and modernistic social groups of Dagestan, Russia—a region in the south of Russia that is only now undergoing the process of modernization. As an important factor in economic development in developed countries, social capital and trust often have a negative impact on the level of well-being in traditional communities. The research, based on a sociological survey of residents of the Republic of Dagestan, shows that this pattern is due to the fact that in traditional society, the radius of trust (which is one of the most important components of social capital) extends only to the immediate environment. This is why social capital in such communities produces lower returns. Moreover, using variables associated with the process of breaking traditional norms (residence and birth in the city, modernist religious beliefs, importance of free time, and desire to educate children in self-expression values and foster values of obedience), this article argues that the modernization process leads to the destruction of closed social capital, expressed in the decline of trust in relatives, friends, colleagues, neighbors, and representatives of the same nationality. At the same time, the transformation of traditional norms has a different effect on open social capital—having more modernistic values is positively linked to generalized trust, while being a part of modernistic social groups demonstrates a negative link. The results enable us to conclude that the high level of social capital recorded in other studies in the North Caucasus (and in Dagestan, in particular) is actually associated with a high level of trust in the surrounding environment and is not as productive as in other regions.</p> Daniil Sitkevich Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Algorithmic Management in the Platform Economy <p>The platform model is the distinguishing organizational form of the early decades of the twenty-first century. Whereas actors in markets contract, hierarchies command, and networks collaborate, platforms co-opt assets, resources, and activities that are not part of the firm. As a distinctive organizational form, the platform model confronts a distinctive managerial challenge: how to manage value-creating activities that are undertaken on the platform but not in the firm? In a triangular geometry, platform owners co-opt the behavior of providers and users, enrolling them in the practices of algorithmic management without managerial authority having been delegated to them. Acting on their own behalf, the ratings and other activities of providers and consumers are algorithmically translated into rankings and other calculating devices that circulate through feedback loops that are twisted rather than circular. Algorithmic management involves a peculiar kind of cybernetic control because at each fold of the feedback loop accountability can be deflected and denied. Whereas Scientific Management in the early twentieth century offered a legitimating principle for the growth of a new managerial class, algorithmic management in the early twenty-first century is reshaping the managerial class. Its power asymmetries at the organizational level are related to coalitions at the regulatory level in which platform owner and investors are in alliance with platform consumers.</p> David Stark, Ivana Pais Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p><span id="page91R_mcid238" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60.2362px; top: 210.021px; font-size: 20px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.785772);">Dear colleagues,</span></span></p> <p><span id="page91R_mcid239" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60.2362px; top: 257.266px; font-size: 20px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.766398);">At present, we are still hoping to escape from the shock of the pandemic in the near future while also expecting </span></span><span id="page91R_mcid240" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60.2362px; top: 280.888px; font-size: 20px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.787744);">the possibility of a third wave. Meanwhile, let us turn to a new issue of our journal. </span></span></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Subjective Perception of Employment Instability: Is It Bad to Be Unstable? <p>Nowadays in the literature, there are two perspectives on the spread of atypical labor contracts and unstable employment trajectories: some authors insist on the vulnerability of modern employees and the weakening of their bargaining position; others emphasize new opportunities for flexibility and independence from the employer. However, it remains unclear how employees react to these new employment conditions. Is instability a benefit or a sign of vulnerability for them? This discussion is most relevant for skilled young workers, as freedom and flexibility are of great value to them. The authors make an attempt to discover which position is closer to unstable workers in Russia. The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey—Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE) data for 2014–2018 were used for the analysis. The panel data was used to construct the variable of instability in the labor market, taking into account the previous working status of the respondents (the sample size was 1,507 respondents). The main method of analysis was linear regression. The dependent variables were the components of subjective well-being, and the explanatory variable was the status of employment instability. The results show that employment instability is not related to respondents’ subjective well-being, nor to job insecurity. No differences in the subjective assessments of stable and unstable employees with different skills and income levels were found. The findings allow us to state that employment instability is not perceived by Russian employees as a distinct situation in the labor market, or as referring to negative or positive type of work or social position of an individual.</p> Elena Gasiukova, Anastasia Petrova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Flexible Commuting Patterns by Current Residents of Chelyabinsk <p class="text">Digitization is changing the organization of work. Work is becoming independent of time and place, which affects changes in mobility patterns. This article explores the commuting patterns of current residents of Soviet-designed industrial cities with strictly delineated contours of practice and commuting patterns. Using a case study of the city of Chelyabinsk, this study proposes a typology of residential mobility patterns that varies in relation to employment. For this purpose, Hägerstrand’s theory of the temporal and spatial constraints of mobility was used. By analyzing quantitative data collected in February 2020 through a standardized street survey, three types of commuting patterns were identified: “flexible,” “temporally flexible,” and “regular.” Each type of pattern is described by quantitative characteristics, such as employment sector, form of employment, and place of residence. This study extends the understanding of what commuting patterns in current Russian cities might look like. It demonstrates the dominance of the “temporally flexible” commuting patterns of residents of Chelyabinsk, designed as an industrial center with regular commuting patterns. While the stufy does not provide a certain depth of analysis, it can be taken as a starting point in understanding individual mobility patterns in Russian cities. The results of the study may be of interest to researchers on work and urban mobility, as well as to city planners and policy makers on social and transport issues.</p> Nadezda Krasilnikova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Transformation of the Institution of Administrative Complaints in Civilian Uniforms <p class="text">On the basis of the integration of A. Hirschman's “voice-exit” theory and the author's theory of the distribution economy, the universal nature of the institution of complaints as a mechanism for generating new social practices is substantiated, and an analysis of civil complaints is carried out. In restricted access orders, complaints are an attribute of administrative management, while in open access orders, the civil complaints employed are not only received by the authorities but are also presented in public forms. In contrast to the widespread understanding of complaints as a socio-psychological phenomenon, this article reveals the mechanism of their active influence on the formation of the institutional environment throughout its historical development, which explains the revival of this institution as a feedback signal in new digital and communicative forms in the modern Russian economy. To solve this task, we used a methodology of analyzing institutional changes as “a path dependent on the previous development,” which traces the formation and development of the basic institution of complaints at three stages of the evolution of the distribution economy in Russia, as well as the institution’s acquisition of a modern state on the basis of new platforms and authorized public events. As a result, there has been a gradual transition to civil forms of complaints, which include different types of public activity to present unresolved problems. It is established that local protests on socio-economic issues, in fact, are an unformalized part of the institution of complaints and actively influence decision-making in the modern management model.</p> Olga Bessonova Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Participation in Professional Training and Non-Economic Effects for Workers in Russia <p class="text">The goal of the paper is to identify the relationship between participation in professional training financed by the employer and its non-economic effects: subjective control and job satisfaction (including satisfaction with pay and with professional growth opportunities). According to the human capital theory, participation in professional training accumulates both specific and general human capital; workers develop their skills and become more flexible in the labor market. We test the hypothesis that participation in professional training will be positively interrelated with employees’ subjective control and job satisfaction. The empirical base of the study is formed by the Russian Longitudinal Household Monitoring Survey (RLMS—HSE), waves 19 and 20 (2010 and 2011). The analysis identified positive effects only in the case of subjective control, but not for job satisfaction. This partially supports our hypothesis. The results show that workers who participated in professional training, compared to the workers who did not, will have a higher level of subjective control, i.e., workers feel more in control of their circumstances at work and in life. However, no effect of training was found in the case of job satisfaction. A possible reason is that training is not sufficiently integrated in the short career structures of low- or middle-skill jobs. Therefore, participation in professional training does not widen professional mobility opportunities in this labor market segment and thus is not associated with higher job satisfaction.</p> Natalia Karmaeva, Andrey Zakharov Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 What is Wrong with the Concept of Job Readiness in Higher Education? <p>Equipping students with employability skills has become a novel mission of universities since the late 21st century. Discussion on how to make students more job-ready has appeared as a core of the education policy agenda. The roots of the job readiness agenda in higher education (HE) are mostly studied through the lens of changes in the HE sector and are regarded as a result of the massification and vocationalisation of HE. But these explanations only implicitly consider labor market changes that trigger the employability agenda. This paper challenges the job readiness agenda in HE, especially the pressure being put on HE institutions that are expected to fit students to employer’s needs. In order to find the grounds and justification for the employability agenda, I study its cornerstone theses through the lens of labor market theories. The research reveals that not all of these theses are well grounded in labor market theories and empirics. On the one hand, the employability narrative is justified by the decreased signaling function of education credentials and the increasing demand for universal skills and updated technical skills. On the other hand, alarmism concerning skill deficits and shortages that places pressure on HE doesn't fully match theories and empirical evidence. The most relevant concept of employability and job readiness could be elaborated in the framework of universal competencies or 21st-century skills. Being job-ready means being prepared for a flexible career and lifelong learning instead of being fitted to short-term requirements. This conceptual framework establishes a shared responsibility for developing skills and managing skill gaps between individuals, employers and educational institutions.</p> Vera Maltseva Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Consumption of Cultural Goods in Russia: Scale, Determinants, Differentiation <p>This paper is the first in the Russian economic and sociological literature that provides a general stylized picture of the consumption of cultural goods in Russia using microdata from representative household surveys. The empirical basis of analysis is Rosstat’s Complex Observation of the Living Conditions of the Population for 2011–2018, which so far has been ignored by researchers. Four main kinds of cultural goods are distinguished—cinema, theater, concerts and museums—and the probabilities and intensity of their consumption are assessed. The analysis shows that in Russia at present, about every second adult consumes some cultural goods during the year. Cinema is the most popular good, followed by concerts, theater and museums. A regular audience is approximately one-fifth of the total audience. The primary focus of the paper is on evaluating the contributions of various factors of demand for cultural goods. There is also a detailed discussion of another important behavioral question: to what extent does demand by individuals for any one cultural good stimulate their demand for all other ones? In the econometric part of the paper, two types of models are constructed and evaluated: ordinary logit (for likelihood of consumption) and multinomial logit (for intensity of consumption). The results obtained show that two groups of factors make the highest contributions: on the one hand, economic (such as income), and, on the other, cultural (such as education, occupation and experience with the Internet). In the Russian context there is a visible empirical regularity: the higher the income of individuals, the more active they are culturally. The wealthiest groups go to the movies two and a half times more often, to the theaters seven times more often, to concerts twice as often, and to museums six times more often than the poorest ones.</p> Rostislav Kapeliushnikov, Natalia Demina Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Exception that Proves the Rule: The Development of Central Banks as an Example of Successful Institutional Reforms in Post-Communist Countries <p>Juliet Johnson is a researcher of politics and finance in the post-Soviet countries and chairperson of the Department of Political Science at McGill University. Her book Priests of Prosperity informs us about the history of the development of central banks in post-communist countries. This story is one of the most interesting episodes of post-Soviet institution building, presenting a rare example of the successful import of an institution birthed in developed democracies. The creation of independent central banks in the early 1990s was accompanied by the introduction of advanced economic approaches that did not exist in these countries. However, this process has completely succeeded, even in those countries where other reforms did not succeed. Johnson recreates this story in an extremely reliable and detailed way. Over a 15-year period, the author conducted more than 160 interviews in 17 countries; she also examined five of them more closely by using a case study and statistics. This investigation contains a large amount of unique empirical material. In addition, it presents the author's own theoretical approach. Johnson's book is not only an example of serious large research, but is also an example of using the institution transplantation model. The book received a number of positive reviews in leading journals on the post-Soviet region as well as prestigious international awards. This review briefly presents the contents of the entire book, containing the opinions of some authors while also discussing in detail certain points of the book that seemed most interesting to the author of this review.</p> Egor Korobkin Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs Private Sector Myths (an excerpt) <p>In the book The Entrepreneurial State, Mariana Mazzucato challenges the widespread idea that the State cannot pick winners, that it is clumsy, bureaucratic and incapable of entrepreneurial risk taking. Her analysis is not just Keynesian; it is also Schumpeterian. The role of the State is not limited to interventions in the macroeconomy as a “market fixer” or as the passive financer of public R &amp; D. The State is also seen as entrepreneur, risk taker and market creator. Mazzucato’s argument goes well beyond the role played by government in countries that have recently forged ahead (Japan in the 1980s or South Korea in the 1990s) to focus on the role played by the public sector agencies of the United States, the wealthiest country in the world and an active promoter of “free markets,” in making risky investments behind the Internet and in funding most of the crucial elements behind the “stars” of the information revolution, companies such as Google and Apple.<br>The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes Chapter 1 of the book, “From Crisis Ideology to the Division of Innovative Labour,” in which the State is presented as an entrepreneurial agent, one taking on the most risky and uncertain investments in the economy. The State does not “derisk” as if it has a “magic wand” that makes risks disappear. It takes on risks, shaping and creating new markets. The author displays the role the State has played in the past, in areas like Silicon Valley, and the role that it can play in the future in areas like the “green revolution.”</p> Mariana MAZZUCATO Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Transformation of the Institution of Administrative Complaints in Civilian Uniforms <p><span dir="ltr">Dear colleagues,</span></p> <p><span dir="ltr">On the day when this issue of our journal will be published, the students of the HSE University are expected </span><span dir="ltr">to return from distant studies to their classes. We believe that this return is for good despite the obvious fact </span><span dir="ltr">that the pandemic is still with us.</span></p> Copyright (c) Mon, 29 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Editor’s Foreword <p>Dear colleagues,</p> <p>This new issue of our journal comes out during these difficult times. The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic is on its way. It brings new challenges, which are comparable with those of the previous wave. Lockdowns and distant communications are returning. We hope that you and your friends and relatives will survive this time safely.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 ‘Alien Elections’: Neighboring State News on the 2018 Russian Presidential Elections <p>News media tend to reflect voices in the political establishment while covering international events. Is it still true when almost half of the national audience speak the language of the country featured in the coverage? In this paper, we present an analysis of 19.5k news messages collected from Russian-language Ukrainian news outlets covering the 2018 presidential elections in Russia. Using a mixed-method approach (topic modeling and qualitative reading), we identify key topics and stories and evaluate the extent of personalization in the election coverage. We find three central angles: the focus on polls and election results, election preparations in Crimea, and Vladimir Putin’s victory. The elections are linked predominantly to Crimean issues through the date of the elections, each candidate’s stance on the subject, the election management in the region, and other countries’ reactions to the results. Such coverage has an accusatory bias; it stresses the legal status of the Crimean referendum and the Russian authorities’ actions and reports the pressures on locals by authorities, especially the Crimean Tatars. Not linked directly to Crimea, other angles are less emotionally charged. Political personalization of the discussion has a contradictory nature. On one hand, the overwhelming majority of the messages mention public figures. On the other hand, the coverage of the figures is limited and omits their traits. Moreover, at times, public figures are replaced by non-personalized symbols (e.g., Kremlin, Russian invaders). However, if the former’s coverage is predominantly neutral, the latter’s coverage is more prone to negative and loaded statements.</p> Anastasia Kazun, Anastasia Kazun Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Cultural Professions in Modern-Day Russia: Statistical Portrait of the Workers <p>In this study, we aim to provide a statistical portrait of employment in the cultural field with regard to occupations on the Russian labor market. The data from the ‘Comprehensive Monitoring of Living Conditions’ are used to illustrate the main differences in the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of culturally employed respondents and other professional groups. Additionally, the most relevant factors that may have an impact on individuals’ probability to be cultural workers are analyzed. Our study is based on the theoretical frameworks of U. Beck, R. Florida, J. Urry, and Z. Bauman. We also consider the possible Soviet legacy of the contemporary Russian culture, which may interconnect with labor conditions in this field, using S. Fitzpatrick’s works. We also provide an overview of other relevant studies. Our findings show that a larger number of cultural workers among the respondents are librarians, archivists, teachers of music and art schools, linguists, museum workers, journalists, and writers. The results on the statistical portrait display that on average, the cultural workers are highly educated married women in their forties or older who live predominantly in the largest regions of the Russian Federation (Moscow and Moscow region, St. Petersburg). Almost three-quarters of the group have relevant education. They are mostly regular full-time employees with a daytime work schedule. We have also found that the most influential factors for becoming cultural workers are the region of residence and relevant professional education.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 School Socio-economic Composition as a Factor of Educational Inequality <p>The socioeconomic composition of schools is considered one of the most significant factors of educational inequality at the school level. Most of the reviewed works demonstrate a positive relation between the student population’s socioeconomic status and educational outcomes. At the same time, a number of authors confirm that this effect is a statistical artifact and is significant due to the limitations of existing studies’ methodology. Despite a fairly large number of works, a few questions remain: How is the composition effect formed? Under what conditions does it occur? What mechanisms involve interconnection? How can the negative effect of school composition be minimized? Is it about causality? In Russian studies, this subject area is out of sight. In this article, the author aims to provide a systematic analysis of relevant works with a focus on developing recommendations and further directions for empirical research. In this review, the author introduces the term socioeconomic composition and describes the main approaches for measuring it, taking into account the choice of the composition indicator, aggregation method, and data analysis method. Following assumptions about the presence of an indirect effect of composition and methodological recommendations, the possible mechanisms of the effect at the peer, teacher, and school levels are described. Based on the analysis of critical works, the prerequisites for research design are formed. The author concludes the paper with a summary of the recommendations and substantiates the scientific and practical importance of studying the causal relation between the school composition and educational results.</p> Yuliya Kersha Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 A Loosening Grip: Why Do Autocracies Engage in the Neoliberalization of Their Welfare Sectors? <p>Despite the wealth of studies on neoliberalism, research on why authoritarian states engage in processes of neoliberalization remains scarce. Therefore, our article seeks to explore why autocracies use neoliberal power practices, which, as suggested by Foucauldian governmentality approach to neoliberalism, are understood as governance techniques aimed primarily at disciplining and controlling populations through promoting the free market as a key form of societal organization. Empirically, these power practices can manifest in a state’s withdrawal from the provision of welfare services. However, scholars have argued that control over the public sector is essential to the maintenance of authoritarian regimes, and hence, governments must have compelling reasons to opt for its neoliberalization. In this study, we employ three mutually nonexclusive theoretical perspectives that suggest incentives that may motivate autocrats to retreat from the welfare sector; these are the authoritarian legitimation, authoritarian modernization, and political economy perspectives. By means of a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, we tested the foregoing theories on a sample of 42 autocracies active during 1980–2005. The results revealed that authoritarian modernization theory has the highest explanatory capacity, as it identifies two distinct pathways to public sector neoliberalization—internal and external policy considerations or one of the two—while the political economy perspective was an important theoretical concern in several cases. Overall, our paper contributes to research on the governmentality approach to neoliberalism and serves as a departure point for further investigations into neoliberal authoritarianism.</p> Ilia Viatkin, Kristina Komarova Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Психологические причины коррупции: роль тревоги <p>This study is devoted to answering two questions: (1) Do individuals’ worries and sufferings correlate with the acceptability of corruption from their perspectives? (2) Does this correlation differ by country in terms of corruption levels? We focus on analyzing the correlation between macro and micro worries, on one hand, and individual acceptability of corrupt behavior, on the other hand. This study is based on the data from the 6th-wave World Value Survey. We identified three groups of countries based on the corruption perception index: countries with low-level corruption (Australia, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, and Sweden), countries with medium-level corruption (Belarus, China, South Korea, Malaysia, and Romania), and countries with high-level corruption (Russia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Thailand). For the purposes of our analysis, we used structural equation modeling. We have found that macro and micro worries are significantly correlated with the acceptability of corruption. Our analysis shows that the more the people worry about themselves or their families, the more they accept corruption. The people who worry about society are more likely to disapprove of corruption. However, the significance of these links varies, depending on the group of countries. For the countries with low-level corruption, the correlation is significant only for the link between micro worries and the acceptability of corruption. The countries with high-level corruption show a significant correlation only for the link between macro worries and the acceptability of corruption. For countries with medium-level corruption and for Russia, the acceptability of corruption is significantly correlated with both micro and macro worries.</p> Anna Mironova Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Capitalism without Capital: The Rise of the Intangible Economy (an excerpt) <p>Capitalism without Capital by Jonathan Haskel and Stian Westlake explores the changes in the types of investments that have occurred in almost all developed countries over the last forty years. If tangible investments predominated in the past, most investments are intangible at present, meaning that money is spent on buying and creating knowledgebased products, including computer software, research and development, design, works of art, market research, learning, and new business processes. The authors attempt to answer why the economy in which intangible assets are intensively used is so different from the economy where tangible assets dominate. The authors conclude that these changes are explained by the basic properties of the intangible assets and have resulted in long-lasting stagnation, lower economic growth, increasing inequality, and difficulties in public policies for economic and financial sectors. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the introductory chapter, ‘Valuation, the Old-Fashioned Ways: Or a Thousand Years in Essex’ from Capitalism without Capital, where the authors discuss the meaning of investments, define the distinctions between tangible and intangible assets, and explain why some basic properties of intangible assets generate such dramatic changes in the contemporary economy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Create not to Commercialize: On the Everyday Practices of Russian Technopreneurs <p>What is the reason for the low commercialization of high-tech innovations in Russia? Given the Russian engineers’ high scores on initiative, creativity, and technical competence, why is there no successful launch of manufactured—often amazing—inventions on domestic and international markets? Does Russia have a specific way of development in the sphere of high technologies? The research team of sociologists from the European University at St. Petersburg (EUSP)—Olga Bychkova, Boris Gladarev, Oleg Harkhordin, and Zhanna Tsinman—offer answers to these questions in their book, Sci-Fi Worlds of Russian Hi-Tech. Based on a large set of in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs from Russia, as well as Finland, Taiwan, and South Korea, the authors’ focus is not on institutions but on the technopreneurs themselves, who update the hightech markets on their daily practices, ways of social interaction, worldviews, interactions with developers, technical prototypes, and themselves. Employing the concepts from the theory of practice and science and technology studies (STS), the authors have attempted to re-examine the life worlds of Russian technopreneurs and to align their individual narratives with the sociocultural context in which the daily life of developers is embedded. The researchers show the way that engineers live, in which value categories make sense of their work and daily practices, and how it may determine the technological development of the Russian economy and the whole society at the macro level. The book is filled with detailed and thorough descriptions of methodology and fieldwork, rich and illustrative quotations from the narratives of innovators, and the justification for the theoretical framework of the study. It is addressed to a wide readership and will be useful for sociologists, including those interested in research on science and technology, and for the general public who strives to open up the daily life of those whose works try to “crack the laws of the universe.”</p> Daria Lebedeva Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Why do the Rich Consume More Discreetly? A Theory of the Aspirational Class <p>This paper is a review of The Sum of Small Things: A Theory of the Aspira-tional Class, written by Elizabeth Currid-Halkett and published in 2017. Prof. Currid-Halkett leads the Public Policy Department at the University of Southern California. Her research interests tend to focus on the arts, culture, the consumer economy, and the role of culture in geographic and class divides. Her main idea, portrayed through this book, is that, at the beginning of the 21st century, conspicuous consumption becomes more democratic. In other words, due to the mass-production economy, luxury goods have become significantly more accessible. The abundance of leisure no longer indicates a higher status. As a result, the leisure class is substituted by the aspirational class, whose members reveal their position through cultural signifiers and value systems. The objective of this book is to accurately analyse the portrait of this aspirational class, which transmits completely different consumer behaviour when compared to Veblen’s leisure class. The book combines both quantitative and qualitative research de-signs. Elizabeth Currid-Halkett examines the nationally representative Consumer Expenditure Survey from 1996 to 2014 (covering 35 000 American households per year). In addition, she draws on 15 interviews to explore Americans’ con-sumer practices in greater depth.&nbsp;This review seeks to emphasize the importance of the author’s conclusions re-garding studies of consumer behaviour, social stratification, and social class the-ories. The first part of the paper covers the scientific background of the book and its methodological framework. The second part describes its theoretical frame along with statistical evidence and findings. The paper concludes by highlighting key limitations of the study and suggesting further research directions.</p> Irina Kolegova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Access to Modern Medical Technologies in Russia and Europe <p>The authors discuss the results of a comparative analysis of the access to medical technologies in Russia and the countries of the European Union. The study included the most popular diagnostic technologies: computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). The key indicators of access to this kind of equipment are its distribution—the number of units per share of the population—and the frequency of use of existing installations by patients. The research information base consisted of Russian and European statistics for the period from the 1980s to the present.</p> <p>A comparative analysis of the accessibility of the technologies under consideration in Russia and European countries based on these indicators allowed us to come to the following conclusions.A review of the literature confirms that the development of public health in the modern era is largely determined by the introduction and widespread use of new medical technologies. Among them, the important role of diagnostic technologies play a part in the article, but access to these diagnostic procedures remains limited in many countries. As a comparative analysis of European countries shows, Russia is significantly inferior to almost all EU countries in the level of accessibility of these procedures due to the insufficient number of CT, MRI, and PET scanners and the low rates of their use. The technological lag in Russian health care is associated with low levels of state funding for the sector given that, in the state’s policy, social spending is less important than other areas of budget financing. Limited access to modern diagnostic tools prevents the rapid and high-quality determination of the causes of many diseases and, consequently, their successful treatment. In addition, a significant shortage of modern technological equipment can aggravate the problem of social inequalities in health, which is clearly manifested in Russian society. Thus, well-off people with the ability to spend significant funds on receiving modern medical services will benefit, while people with low incomes will be forced to be content with less-effective procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lyudmila Panova, Anastasia Panova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Conceptualizing Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants: A Systematic Literature Review <p>Job satisfaction is considered an important aspect of employee behavior. This article focuses on a critical analysis of the accompanying literature to determine the various factors that shape job satisfaction and to gauge their relative signifi-cance in conditioning employee behavior. The conceptualizations of job satisfac-tion in the existing literature are multitudinous, reflecting the breadth of critical perspectives on the subject. A systematic literature review, therefore, consisted of: (a) isolating databases and a set of publications; (b) selecting publications and developing a database; and (c) conducting bibliometric analysis, content analy-sis, and testing the relevance of results to further research. The review included publications from the years 2000–2018 and covered psychology, sociology, eco-nomics, and management science. Analysis of previous theoretical publications and empirical studies reveals that they are not without their cognitive and meth-odological limitations. Even at the level of definition, despite numerous criti-cal attempts to clarify exactly what constitutes job satisfaction, an unambiguous and clear-cut conception has yet to surface. Equally, critical consensus is lack-ing among researchers over what contributes to job satisfaction, and divergent research approaches have been adopted as a result. Indeed, despite the rising popularity of job satisfaction studies, some of these factors have yet to be ex-plored fully, while some research has yielded contradictory results regarding the strength of the influence of certain factors on job satisfaction. This paper fills this gap and, through a systematic analysis of the literature, indicates the direction in which current research is headed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Joanna Wyrwa, Jerzy Kaźmierczyk Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Is Industrial Agriculture Sustainable During Climate Change and Ecological Threats? <p>Russia has experienced food revolutions in production, distribution, and consumption since 2000. These revolutions have transformed the food system, but systemic changes are not complete — a sustainable agricultural system is not likely in Russia anytime soon; the effects of climate change are likely to worsen and force further revolutionary change to Russia’s food system, which in the short-term could cause food insecurity. The state retains its key role in regulating the food system, primarily due to considering food security a factor of national security, has been achieved. The Russian statist discourse on food security, which has intensified under the Western sanctions and pandemic restrictions, ignores the challenges that the global agro-industrial sector faces at the same time being the source of anthropogenic changes. Moreover, this discourse rarely takes into account environmental challenges for the Russian agro-industrial sector. The article shows the relationship between climate/ecological changes and the dominant industrial agriculture not in the form of alarmist statements, but by describing the social-economic-ecological context, in which the research questions about current and future restrictions and consequences of industrial agriculture should be asked. The article presents examples of sustainable agriculture in Russia, identifies obstacles to moving away from industrial agriculture, and considers possible scenarios for the transition to sustainable agriculture.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Stephen Wegren, Irina Trotsuk Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 XXII April International conference on the development of the economy and society, Higher School of Economics, April 13–23, 2021 <p>XXII Апрельская международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества, проводимая Национальным исследовательским университетом «Высшая школа экономики», состоится 13−23 апреля 2021 г. Председатель Программного комитета АМНК — научный руководитель НИУ ВШЭ профессор Е. Г. Ясин.</p> <p><br>Конференция посвящена широкому кругу актуальных проблем экономического и социального развития страны. Основную часть выступлений на АМНК составляют научные доклады российских и зарубежных учёных. Важной частью программы конференции являются специальные мероприятия, которые проводятся в формате пленарных заседаний и круглых столов с участием членов Правительства Российской Федерации, государственных деятелей, представителей бизнеса, российских и зарубежных экспертов.</p> <p><br>В сложившихся эпидемиологических условиях XXI Апрельская конференция прошла в распределённом формате, что означало совмещение различных форм проведения и более длительные сроки проведения. Приём заявок на XXII АМНК был открыт 21 сентября 2020 г. Планируется, что конференция пройдёт 13−23 апреля 2021 г. в смешанном формате и объединит как онлайн-, так и офлайн-мероприятия.</p> Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p>Dear colleagues, this new issue of our journal is published during difficult times. The second wave of the covid-19 pandemic is here, and it brings new challenges comparable to those encountered during the previous wave. Lockdowns and communicating from a distance are back. We sincerely hope that you and your friends and relatives will remain safe during this time.</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Value of Everything. Making and Taking in the Global Economy (an excerpt) <p>According Prof. Mazzucato, to understand economic growth it is necessary to return to issues relating to what wealth means and where value comes from. The aim of this book is to reinvigorate the debate on value, which traditionally was—and should still be—at the core of economic thinking. Prof. Mazzucato points to the fact that in economics, various types of economic activities related to value extraction (or even value destruction) are camouflaged as or pretend to represent value creation. This results in a huge increase in social inequality and a significant decrease in investments in the real economy. Understanding the negative consequences of value extraction requires clarification of what is really taken. Which social, economic, and organizational conditions are necessary for value production? The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes “Introduction: Making versus Taking,” where Prof. Mazzucato makes distinctions between value making and value extraction (e.g. tax evasions, share buy-backs, etc.). It also defines “value creation” as the ways in which different types of resources are established and interact to produce new goods and services. Finally, the introduction provides details of how the book is structured.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Мариана Маццукато Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 “Difficult Money”: The Question for the Next Revision of the Nature of Money <p>This book, edited by N. Bandelj, F. Wherry, and V. Zelizer, comprises a series of articles united in a collective monograph; it opens the reader to a multilateral view of the nature of money as a system of meanings and signs, and clarifies the mechanisms of the formation and functioning of financial flows and institutions. Trends associated with the active dissemination of new forms of money that are not tied to a specific financial system, as well as the expanding practice of the consumption of goods and services related to issues of morality and ethics, are becoming relevant. The authors were tasked with revising the conceptual framework for the study of money, and the main goal was to show the principles of the functioning of money in the financial system and, to a greater extent, in the system of social relations. In the book, the conceptual framework is examined in five sections, each of which provides sociological, cultural, anthropological, and historical perspectives. The authors of 14 chapters illustrate the connection of their theses with the approach of Viviana Zelizer, as outlined in a number of her famous works, and the analysis of money itself is based on the subject of the fungibility of mediums, functions, and meanings (earmarking) of monetary units, the understanding of financial accounting by people themselves (mental accounting), and the influence of the state on this process. This review aims to define the logic of the presentation of the material in the book in order to better understand the theoretical and empirical principles set forth in the chapters.</p> Stanislav Pashkov Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Phenomenon of Downshifting in Central and Eastern European Countries: Case Studies from Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia <p>The article introduces discussions of sociocultural post-material practices that are connected with downshifting and with efforts to thrive in the shadow of dominating forms in contemporary societies. The author extends her conceptual framework beyond ecology, sociology, and the politics of sustainable lifestyles and draws from Anthony Giddens’s “reflexive project of the self.” The introduced notion of “experiencing downshift” is understood as the reflexiveexperience by those individuals, who reshape their lives to reflect its “authentic” meaning, which is connected to the resignation from high material living standards. The article offers the concept of identity as central rather than peripheral to downshifting research.<br>Following a longitudinal panel study on the processes of far-reaching and radical changes in the lifestyles of 31 downshifters, five areas were examined: motives for the change, the character of the change, reactions of others, balance of benefits and losses, and decision consistency. Findings suggest that the contested meaning of (material) life success leads to the reframing of value priorities and the reconstruction of personal and social identities. Ideals of downshift move away from productive efforts and consumption-based identities toward practices of being reflective, self-aware, and fostering well-being, which is variously characterized by harmony, pleasure, and creativity. Most of them are not unique to downshifting, but this is not (as I have emphasized) a limitation but simply a chance for the movement to get out of the frame of a politicized, radicalized critique of capitalist growth society and make consumers appreciate that what they already do could be potentially supportive of downshift transformation.</p> Aneta Duda Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Homo Sapiens Socialis <p>Homo sapiens is the greatest mystery of science. The main property of this biological species is the mind, but what are the laws of consciousness and how does ignorance of these laws hinder the development of ideas about various spheres of functioning of society? These and other relevant issues of cognitive science are tackled in the book Minds Make Societies: How Cognition Explains the World Humans Create by Pascal Boyer, a professor at the University of Washington. This work is reviewed so that potential readers can understand how convincing the author is in solving the tasks he sets—the problems of a new science, the foundations of which he intends to lay. The French-American evolutionary psychologist poses six questions: What is the basis of intergroup conflicts? Why do we need information? Why do religions exist? What is natural family? How can society be fair? Can our minds comprehend society? In answering these questions, Boyer uses a variety of facts from various disciplines of natural science and humanities. The scholar seeks to show and refute the prejudices of many prevailing concepts, for example, the traditional opposition between nature and culture, which has dominated for several centuries. The anthropologist provides a lot of fascinating data, including from personal field experience, and does so using simple language. However, in the end, most hypotheses are explained by human evolution and the need for groups to simultaneously consolidate within themselves and resist other communities. The book could be useful to anyone interested in anthropology and the structure of society, as well as laws of thought.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Alexander Subbotin Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Types of Financial Disagreements in Families: Qualitative Evidence from Russia <p>Financial disagreements have been previously identified in the literature as the main predictor of divorce in families as well as the most difficult and prolonged type of disagreement among spouses. However, the topic of financial conflicts between spouses remains undertheorized and has been insufficiently studied empirically in Russia. This study attempts to fill this gap in answering the question of how financial disagreements in families can be classified. To resolve this research problem, 35 Russian married or cohabiting couples were interviewed. In-depth interviews were conducted with each of the partners separately to determine their positions and compare their views within the couple. The results show that financial disagreements are normalized phenomena in the life course of Russian couples. However, the issue seems to be very sensitive, and the qualitative methodology allowed for the detection that partners may feel embarrassed and stressed while discussing the reasons for financial conflicts. Nevertheless, five types of financial disagreements were identified based on their underlying reasons: price conflicts, conflicts about necessity, conflicts of goals, conflicts due to a lack of planning, and conflicts of values. The last type seems to be one of the most difficult and unpleasant types of family conflicts, as it shows that partners hold different and often incompatible positions regarding the family’s finances. This result highlights the importance of using a relational sociology approach while studying marital financial disagreements. Also, the identified typology can serve as a guide for studying financial conflicts in families more deeply and for family therapy and divorce prevention.</p> Polina Zhidkova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 How Different are the Models of Administrative Adjudication Across the Russian Regions? On the Example of Antitrust Cases <p>The Russian practice of implementing the decisions of administrative authorities, including challenging them in the judicial system, provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of institutional changes on the effectiveness of legal norms. This article is aimed at describing the main features of the Russian system of contesting the decisions of administrative authorities (in this case, we consider cases of contesting indictments of an antimonopoly body); it also considers key parameters that are characteristic of Russia as a country in a transitional stage of institutional development. The analysis is based on data obtained from the Arbitration Card File of the Federal Arbitration Courts of the Russian Federation on decisions of the Russian arbitration courts of first instance with respect to contesting the decisions of the antimonopoly body on all types of charges for the period 2012–2018. For the indicated period, a sample of 14,790 decisions of arbitration courts of the first instance was formed, which covered different subjects of the Russian Federation. The considered statistics of contesting antitrust decisions of arbitration courts of the first instance demonstrate a high level of differentiation of the institution of judicial regulation regarding disputes arising from the relationship between the antimonopoly body and companies. Subsequently, such features become some of the essential parameters that determine the differences in the processes of law enforcement and the quality of the institutional environment. At the same time, significant differences in the levels of judges' workload relative to average values make it possible to determine both the insufficient and excessive composition of judges, both in general for the courts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and for groups of judges considering disputes arising from administrative legal relations.</p> Elena Sidorova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Arhythmic Tempo: Dynamics of Readiness to Join the Collective Actions in Russia (1996–2019) <p>The propensity of the public to protest is a dynamic process, the direction of which determines the level of political stability. Aggregate indicators of the readiness to act collectively against declining standards of life can be used as a thermostat that indicates the level of economic grievances in society. What explains these dynamics? Do incremental changes in objective economic indicators such as inflation or unemployment matter the most, or is it the subjective evaluation of the situation in the country that drives protest attitudes? In this paper, I argue that two mechanisms link inflation and unemployment to the readiness to join economic protests: first, high levels of both indicators increase the gap between actual and desired consumption levels; second, high levels of inflation and unemployment signal the lack of governmental competence. I also argue that the subjective evaluation of the direction of the country has an independent effect on the aggregate level of readiness to join the collective actions with economic demands. Statistical analysis based on the autoregressive model with distributed lag (ADL) confirms the hypothesis of the consumer price index and unemployment’s lagged impact on the readiness to protest, while public optimism exhibits both short- and long-term effects on the protest mood. The analysis also reveals the high level of persistence in the dynamics of protest attitudes. The study contributes to the discussion on the determinants of the mobilization and significance of objective and subjective economic grievances.</p> Andrey Semenov Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 International Workshop “The Varieties of Power in the Economy,” Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, NRU HSE, Moscow, Russia, July 2–3, 2020 <p>The international workshop ‘The Varieties of Power in the Economy’ was held from July 3 to 4, 2020 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar was organized by the Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology (LSES) at the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow. The seminar primarily aimed to initiate a discussion on power practices, modes of influence, compliance, and governance structures in the economy. The keynote speakers of the workshop were Alena Ledeneva, Professor of Politics and Society at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (University College London, UK) and Valery Yackubovich, Professor at the Management Department (SSEC Business School, France). In their lectures they shared their understanding of the topics and how they can be incorporated in various conceptual frameworks within economic sociology. Apart from LSES, the seminar engaged researchers from various research institutions, backgrounds, and traditions. Invited speakers included Elena Bogdanova (University of Gothenburg), Tamara Kusimova (Central European University), Aleksei Pobedonostsev (The European University Institute in Florence), Olga Sidenko (Voronezh State University), Daria Shcheglova (HSE University—Institute of Education), Maria Tysiachniouk (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Ulla Paper, Stanislav Klimovich, and Katharina Bluhm (Freie Universität Berlin), and Maya Shmidt (Uppsala University). The researchers took a closer look at their academic fields and identified the issues of power practices, forms of influence, and control in economic exchange. By examining completely different social spheres and institutional fields, the participants discussed the ambivalence of power and the variety of power relations and practices in the economy.</p> Daria Lebedeva Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p>Dear colleagues, the very first issue of the Journal of Economic Sociology came out in September 2000, exactly twenty years ago. It was one of the pioneers among the academic e-journals in Russia at the time, when the very notion of ‘electronic journal’ was not widely recognized. We contributed to a new standard, which became quite common many years later</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Testing and Being Tested in Pandemic Times <p>The coronavirus pandemic is witness to a great proliferation of two types of tests. The first type is testing —– new medical diagnostic tests as well as epidemiological models that simulate and project the course of the virus. In the second type, actors, organizations, and institutions are being tested in this moment of social and political crisis. This essay analyzes the similarities and differences between these two major types of tests in order to understand their entanglements in the crisis. In the process, we find a great diversity of tests operating in multiple registers, themselves not clearly demarcated, often combining and sometimes conflating, for example, scientific and public discourse. The study opens by identifying three aspects of testing, drawn from the sociology of testing. First, tests are frequently proxies (or projections) that stand for something. Second, a test is a critical moment that stands out – whether because it is a moment deliberately separated out or because it is a puzzling or troublesome “situation” that disrupts the flow of social life. Third, when someone or something is put to the test, of interest is whether it stands up to the challenge. These insights serve as the building blocks for addressing three major issues – representation, selection, and accountability – regarding testing in the time of the coronavirus crisis. In this moment we see a new model of testing: from statistical calculation of risk in a population to algorithmic prediction about the riskiness of particular persons.</p> David Stark Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 How Different are the Models of Administrative Adjudication Across the Russian Regions? On the Example of Antitrust Cases <p>The paper describes an experiment aimed at creating a categorical and interactive stratification schema for the population a major Russian city (St. Petersburg). We used the data on friendship ties of 3200 adults to create a network of ties among occupations. We then used the Louvaine community detection algorithm to identify six clusters. The clusterization obtained distinguished between skilled manual, routine non-manual and professional occupations demonstrating that close social ties are more likely to be found within, rather than between, their boundaries. However, in contrast to Goldthorpe’s class schema, the algorithm also identified cleavages between sectors of professional occupations (pedagogical/ artistic, clerical, etc.) The boundaries between such groups of occupations are reproduced inter-generationally even in the absence of considerable economic inequality between them. We demonstrate that clusters of occupations differ in their lifestyles and consumption patterns (e.g. consumption of highbrow culture) even controlling for age, gender, and education. We interpret the clusterization as evidence of the existence of milieus confined within institutional barriers of social sectors. Such milieus, rather than classes, serve as the building blocks of social structure defined through intensity of interaction or lifestyles.</p> Mikhail Sokolov, Nadezhda Sokolova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Sticky Economy’s Social Consequences <p>The book Good Economics for Hard Times: Better Answers to Our Biggest Problems is the answer of the 2019 Nobel laureates in Economics Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo to the fundamental challenges of modernity. Its pages are devoted to the questions: why do economists and other social researchers offer ineffective responses to global challenges? What are the dangers of stereotypical thinking and outdated economic schemes and theories? Why can't we rely only on the scientist's intuition? What is the power of painstaking social research based on experimental methods and careful processing of facts? Why are there no universal recipes for economic growth? Why is each national variant of socioeconomic development unique? What role do traditions and values play in these options? Why does the growth of income inequality turn into a polarization of ideologies and political positions, leading to an increase in intolerance, racism, tribalization, and so on? How do ideological approaches and populism become a distorting lens of reality? Why do the anger and despair associated with personal injuries and failures turn into anti-immigrant rhetoric and wallbuilding? Why does the idea of a universal basic income not find empirical support and what can replace it? All readers and researchers who are interested in these issues will be introduced to a large-scale, thorough study based on the generalization and analysis of a wide range of social surveys and other studies with the widest regional coverage. The authors strive to dispense with the prevailing stereotypes in science, relying only on facts and their experimental confirmation. The book is written in a very lucid literary style, with a certain amount of humor.</p> Наталия Мещерякова Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Constitutional Review and Dissenting Opinions in Nondemocracies: An Empirical Analysis of the Russian Constitutional Court, 1998–2018 <p class="text">Whereas constitutional courts are associated with democracy and the rule of law, today, they these courts exist in nondemocracies, where they face direct threats to their existence or backlash from domestic actors. For a court to survive, it has to constantly strike a balance between performing the functions imposed by the ruler and trying not to lose its legitimacy. What is the role of constitutional courts in nondemocracies? When do they rule against the government, and when do they side with it? To what extent can regional governments, citizens, or political activists succeed in challenging the state? Given the higher risks judges in nondemocracies face, when do they author dissenting opinions? To answer these questions, I use a novel dataset on all final judgments issued by the Russian Constitutional Court (RCC) between 1998 and 2018 (N = 502). Using a regression analysis, I show how the outcomes of cases depend on who petitions the court and about what. First, the results show that the political regime and institutional settings matter—applications about the government’s structure have the lowest probabilities of being nullified but have higher probabilities of carrying a dissenting opinion. Additionally, judges dissent more when cases are brought by highlevel political actors, such as the president, federal parliament, and government. Second, social rights are an area of consensus among judges—the court is more likely to strike down laws that violate social rights, including social welfare and cases on antidiscrimination, and judges are less likely to dissent in such cases. When higher courts in nondemocracies exist—and as long as they benefit the ruler or ruling party—they tend to (1) avoid confrontation with the ruler and (2) shift their focus toward “safer” areas, which, in the Russian case, became advancing and protecting social rights.&lt;\p&gt;</p> Yulia Khalikova Copyright (c) Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Context in Leisure: The Neglected Side <p class="text">Studies of leisure stand apart at the intersection of sociology, economics, anthropology, and psychology, as they tend to focus on subjective experience. Ten years ago, Robert Stebbins, a research veteran in this discipline, emphasized all sorts of contexts and external factors that cannot be omitted and should be taken into account when doing such research. Over 30 years of studying this phenomenon, Stebbins managed to build his own theory, the “Serious Leisure Perspective,” and addressed boredom and choice as components of leisure. In Leisure Activities in Context, he further develops the fundamental idea he introduced 10 years ago (the Serious Leisure Perspective) based on Anthony Giddens’ theory of structure—which is reflected in the subtitle of Stebbins’ book: “A Micro-Macro/AgencyStructure Interpretation of Leisure.” Stebbins categorizes context at the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels, emphasizing that leisure research always focuses on only one layer, and no one has previously attempted to paint the big picture. In this vein, he formulates the goal of his new book—to show how different levels communicate with each other in the field of leisure. Stebbins uses his own theory as a classification of leisure activities divided into three types: serious, relaxed, and project-based. He expresses the hope that, after reading his new book, readers will stop looking at leisure activities solely from the perspective of micro-structure.</p> Alex Vakarash Copyright (c) Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Dynamics of Dissertation Industry in Russia, 2005–2015. Did New Institutional Templates Change Academic Behavior? <p>The paper introduces the notion of the “institutional template,” defined as a highly legitimate example of a certain practice to which formal mechanisms of assessing the degree of correspondence are attached. Arguably, institutional templates are currently the major vehicles through which coercive isomorphism spreads across the academic world. While correspondence measures often take form of quantitative indicators, this is not always the case, so this paper analyzes the history of regulations of dissertation production in Russia as an example of a predominantly non-quantitative template. We use three datasets covering approximately 250,000 cases of dissertation defenses in Russia between 2005 and 2015 to discover the outcomes of the template’s introduction in the dissertation industry. We show how the new regulations allowed a reduction in the number of defenses—nearly by half. However, contrary to the intentions of the template inventors, the reduction was distributed evenly between mathematics, natural sciences (presumably less affected by degree devaluation), and social sciences (the most affected). There was also no concentration of dissertation production in the top research centers and no evidence of intensified migration of degree candidates to such centers. Overall, there is no evidence that the template produced more obstacles for authors of low-quality dissertations than those of high quality. Using the data from interviews with members of dissertation councils, we argue the results of the template: first, it required enormous bureaucratic efforts to demonstrate an individual’s ability to fit into it, and, second, its inability to account for local circumstances of particular disciplines sometimes resulted in de facto negative selection.</p> Katerina Guba, Mikhail Sokolov, Nadezhda Sokolova Copyright (c) Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Enrichment: A Critique of Commodities (excerpts) <p>The authors of this book argue that Western capitalism has recently undergone a fundamental transformation that especially apparent in those countries responsible fpr European industrial primacy. There are two significant dimensions of the work: historical and analytical. The first dimension focuses on economic changes that have been observed since the late 20th century and dramatically modified the way value and wealth are created today: on one hand, the transformation characterized by deindustrialization; and, on the other, the increased exploitation of certain resources that, while not entirely new, have taken on an unprecedented importance. The second direction aims to understand how different commodities can generate transactions perceived as normal by buyers and sellers and that fit preliminary expectations to a certain degree. From a theoretical perspective, the authors deliberate pragmatic structuralism that combines social history with the analysis of cognitive competences upon which actors rely. In terms of empirical data, the authors use statistics enriched with a set of various formal and informal interviews, focusing on France as a case where the mentioned transformation is more distinctive.</p> <p>The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes some excerpts from the second chapter “Toward Enrichment” where the authors define the main sources and benefits of the enrichment economy. The enrichment economy is based less on producing new objects and more on enriching existing things and places by connecting them with specific narratives.</p> Luc Boltanski, Arnaud Esquerre Copyright (c) Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Way Out of the Matrix <p>The feature of this review is to study the properties of modern communications and relations between humans and information. An American journalist and ex-editor of The New Republic, Franklin Foer studies the origins, present, and future of new media. Starting with the meaning of their own names, global network companies claim to everyone that they are ruling the world. Social networks and even search engines collect data with ease and impunity from unsuspecting users who voluntarily publish open access information about themselves. Then, after acquiring the information they need, corporations like Google, Facebook, and Amazon use algorithms to control the behavior of a large part of the world. The review highlights the most important topics of the book: the reasons for degradation of individual taste and thought, ways corporations can follow their clients, the crisis of book publishing and professional journalism, and the importance of privacy. Foer does not spread panic; rather, he explains to the reader what problems modern information society faces. One of the main difficulties is that search engines and social networks do not allow users to filter content (despite an abundance of it) according to users’ personal interests but instead organize the output of material according to internal algorithms. Perhaps we should turn to traditional ways of comprehending the world, such as reading paper books. The Internet itself as a means of communication is not the ultimate evil but the fact that it has been turned into the only way of communication means it is relied on too extensively. As a result, the book World Without Mind by Franklin Foer offers a way to “exit the matrix” of the digital age.</p> Alexander Subbotin Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 International Seminar on Environment and Society “Current Challenges and Pathways to Change”, University of Lisbon, Portugal, March 2–3, 2020 <p>The first International Seminar on Environment and Society was held from March 2nd to 3rd, 2020 in Lisbon, Portugal under the motto of “Current Challenges and Pathways to Change.” The seminar was organized by the Environment and Society Section of the Portuguese Association of Sociology in collaboration with the Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon and the PhD program in Climate Change and Sustainable Development Policies. The seminar aimed to engage social science researchers in a discussion of global environmental agendas, thus establishing complicated relationships between environment and society (both natural and anthropogenic), their consequences for sustainable development, and critical assessment of the current and forthcoming risks of decision-making for the future. The program was organized in two days: the main sections were held simultaneously in five auditoriums, and the presentations of keynote speakers opened and closed each day. Apart from researchers in sociology and social sciences, the seminar was attended by a wide range of participants from a variety of disciplines including geology, philosophy, and legal studies, representing 19 countries around the world. The keynote speakers of the conference were Alan Irwin (Professor, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark), Luísa Schmidt (Professor, Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon, Portugal), Matthias Gross (Professor, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ and University of Jena, Germany), Noel Castree (Professor, School of Environment, Education and Development, University of Manchester, United Kingdom). They shared their understandings of the relationships between social groups and the environment and the environment and society as a whole. This seminar has established itself as a crucial event for productive discussion, demonstrating that social scientists around the world are responsive to environmental issues and stand ready to contribute to solving them.</p> Daria Lebedeva Copyright (c) Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Social Embeddedness as a Business Goal: New Theoretical Implications from the Case of a Global Value Chain <p>This paper provides new theoretical implications for the concept of social embeddedness as one of the main objectives for business relations. Previous studies have considered social embeddedness as an external factor to market exchanges that forms outside of economic relations; in other words, embeddedness appears as an incidental product of market interactions. Here, I propose that social embeddedness is being intentionally constructed by market actors as an integral part of a business process. This view is developed by a theoretical adaptation of studies in relational marketing and the sociology of valuation. Relational marketing shows that interfirm relations have additional value for businesses and can educate market practitioners to intensify social interactions. Valuation studies explain the process of value creation for end goods, and this explanation is applied to interpreting the value of interfirm relations. For the empirical validation, I focus on the field of global value chains because the global coordination of business interactions requires an explicit discussion of relational characteristics. The research is performed using a qualitative design. The empirical part consists of 13 months of participant observation as a sales manager in a Russian global value chain that works in fast-moving consumer goods and consumer electronics. Also, 33 deep semistructured interviews were conducted with employees of the global value chain. Data analysis is performed within a grounded theory perspective. The empirical section demonstrates that the proposed vision of embeddedness as an integral and desirable part of a business process is applicable to firm practices. Economic actors participate in permanent valuation processes to maintain a common interpretation of interfirm relations; they conceptualize business ties as an important source of market value.</p> Boris Belyavskiy Copyright (c) Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Behind the Scene of Soviet Runway Fashion: Capital and Position in the Field <p class="text">This paper presents an approach to describe and analyze the accumulation of specific capital in a Soviet design organization during the late Soviet period from 1968 to 1982. Compared to the Stalin and Thaw periods, the system of fashion production under Late Socialism is less explored. The functioning of regional clothing design houses which constituted a specific feature of the Soviet system of fashion production during this period is underexplored as well. As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to apply Bourdieu’s theory of the field of production to Soviet fashion production. Researchers do not typically use sociological theories of production to analyze Soviet fashion. The study denotes the categories of specific capital, hierarchies, and dynamics of the field of production. The system of fashion production in the late Soviet period is considered a very particular case in a non-capitalist society. There are two components of the study. The first one reconstructs the hierarchy of the Soviet system of fashion production. The second one describes professional strategies to accumulate specific capital and to occupy a position in the field of production. The study focuses on two cases of development and presentation of clothing collections by Perm Clothing Design House during union and cluster meetings of designers from 1968 to 1969 and 1979 to 1982. The paper relies on published research on Soviet fashion history, archive documents from the Russian State Economic Archive and State Archive of Perm Territory, and in-depth interviews with former employees of the Perm Clothing Design House. The results discuss the applicability of the term of “specific capital” to the explanation of the construction processes of hierarchies in the late Soviet field of fashion production. The paper contributes to the earlier conclusions on the ambiguities of Soviet fashion policy. It also introduces the definition of “specific capital” as official representatives’ appreciation of the balance between an officially approved seasonal fashion trend and the creative search achieved by designers of a certain design house. It suggests that a weird combination of socialist and pseudo-market practices penetrated and restricted Soviet fashion production.</p> Iuliia Papushina Copyright (c) Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 What Do We Know About 21st Century Youth? American Teens Through the Eyes of a Psychologist <p class="text">A book written by American psychologist Jean M. Twenge iGen. Why Today's Super-Connected Kids Are Growing Up Less Rebellious, More Tolerant, Less Happy—and Completely Unprepared for Adulthood—and What That Means for the Rest of Us describes the change in values, identity and behavior of adolescents born during the period from 1995 to 2012, the Internet Generation known as iGens. The book represents a good example of thorough data analysis, using the results of sociological surveys that originated in the 1960`s and covering opinions of more than 11 million Americans. Guided by such extensive empirical material, the author infers that adolescents have begun to grow up more slowly, plunge into the virtual world at the expense of reality, presume upon new media, communicate less, and show less interest in news. All that led to a degradation of knowledge and skills, a lack of sophistication, the growth of mental disorders, a lack of self-confidence, angst, and the spread of perverse attitudes towards education, work, family and money. The main reasons for such fundamental changes lie in the safer environment of iGens’ childhoods as well as their greater involvement in digital technologies and information. Accustomed to being supervised externally, iGens internally dive into virtual reality, lose interest in extracting knowledge themselves (reducing their ability to overcome obstacles or desire to take risks), and receive much less real experience. iGens are a few times less likely to meet friends, go on dates, get professional experience, drive a car, drink alcohol, read books, or keep up on the news than representatives of generations X and Y. At the same time, iGens spend twice as much time on the Internet than millennials. Uncontrollably and indiscriminately absorbing primitive and chaotic information, modern adolescents lose their integrity. This is evidenced by the growth of anxiety, mental disorders, and suicides. The example of American teenagers shows that people might lose the very abilities for which the technologies have been created (e. g. interpersonal communication, critical thinking, information awareness, creativity, personal growth, safety, etc.).</p> Anita Poplavskaya Copyright (c) 2020 Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p><em>Detailed description in the text</em></p> Copyright (c) Tue, 26 May 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Enemy of My Enemy or About the Uniting Potential of Market Radicalism <p>This paper is a review of Radical Markets: Uprooting Capitalism and Democracy for a Just Society, the book by Eric A. Posner and Glen E. Weyl and published in 2018. Prof. Posner works at the University of Chicago, where his scholarship is dedicated to international law, foreign relations law, contracts, and game theory and the law. Glen E. Weyl is a Prior Researcher at Microsoft Research New England who also teaches a course Designing the Digital Economy at Yale University. The book concentrates on solutions for the problems of inequality and stagnation. The authors claim that solutions need a combination of left and right theoretical principles. Such a combination allows for institutional systems to approach market principles of freedom, competition, and openness. The market is considered the best tool for providing both equality and economic growth. Five relatively separate spheres are studied in the book, and the same monopolistic restrictions are highlighted. Each chapter presents a solution for one sphere that should enforce free competition and destroy a monopoly.</p> <p>This review proposes an interpretation that the reasonings presented in the book do not create a compromise between left and right. The authors develop a right liberal tradition instead. All the propositions are based on the principles of utilitarianism, marginalist calculations, and neoclassical economics. Simultaneously, the presented solutions appear historically relevant for both approaches, while the solutions do not overcome the theoretical contradictions between neoliberalism and critical theory in the economy and between liberalism and republicanism in politics. The book’s general ideas are discussed after the introduction. Next, specific cases are analyzed through comparison of the principles of liberalism, critical theory, and republicanism. A discussion about the efficiency of theoretical compromises concludes the paper.</p> Boris Belyavski Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p><em>Detailed description in the text</em></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Philosophy of Early Christianity and the Challenges of Digitalization. <p>From December 6 to 7, 2019, the international conference, “Philosophy of Early Christianity in the Era of Digitalization,” was held at Fu Jen Catholic University in the capital of Taiwan, Taipei, with the participation of sociologists from the Saint Tikhon Orthodox Humanitarian University. Currently, all developed countries are evolving the digitalization process. It goes without saying that this is reflected in the economy. Today, even traditionally offline sectors of the national economy are increasingly using cloud computing, big data, and the Internet of things. At the same time, the process of digitalization cannot be reduced solely to the development of the digital economy, since it affects all significant areas of society’s life—social, political, and cultural.</p> <p>Some researchers believe that the digitalization process affects not only the social but also the personal sphere of the individual and brings about a changein needs, whereby the need for information exchange becomes basic. In this regard, the risks of the digitalization process should be noted: technological (artificial intelligence can get out of control); economic (the risk of unemployment due to automation and the substitution of artificial intelligence for a number of professions, on the one hand, and the risk of a shortage of qualified personnel necessary for the development of the digital economy on the other); socio-political (including the risk of escalation of cyber wars between countries); and finally the moral risk, which is the dehumanization of consciousness. The speakers at the conference, representatives of both European and Asian universities, endeavored to understand the trends in the development of the social process of digitalization from the positions of early Christian thinkers.</p> <p>The conference showed the need to study the social process of digitalization in the framework of an interdisciplinary approach at the international level.</p> Igor Ryazantsev, Vasiliy Pisarevskiy Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Why do Marshrutkas Exist in One City and Not in Others? Toward a Political Economy of Routes in Russian Urban Public Transportation <p class="text">Urban public transportation in Russia has changed significantly since the fall of the USSR. In many cities, marshrutkas have completely replaced the classical public modes of transportation. Other cities have, however, tried to balance the electric transport system with marshrutkas. Some cities also have trams and articulated buses on their streets, with minibuses completely absent. The reasons for such huge differences are not obvious. Various approaches have failed to explain why marshrutkas are present on the streets in one city but absent in others. The hypothesis here is that the routes were privatized by marshrutka-operating companies. The conceptual framework is based on the works of Karl Polanyi, Vadim Volkov, and Michael Burawoy. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2016: eight in Moscow, one in St. Petersburg, and ten in provincial cities, such as Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Ulyanovsk, Dimitrovgrad, and Cherepovetz. Research has shown that the fundamental problem for marshrutka operators is the danger of the reconsideration of route owners’ property rights. The difference between cities with and cities without marshrutkas is described not only in terms of a continuance of property rights but also through spatial characteristics of the industrial backgrounds. This view on urban public transport calls for a fresh discussion on regulation issues in transportation studies, the commodification of mobility, and the political economy of transport.</p> Egor Muleev Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Some Regularities in Establishing Regional Categories of Specially Protected Natural Territories <p class="text">Protection of the environment and specially protected natural territories are in the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and its constituent entities. In particular, constituent entities have the power to establish their own categories of specially protected natural territories (called regional categories) besides the categories prescribed by the federal law On Specially Protected Natural Territories. The diversity of regional categories has been studied only superficially, despite the fact that such research may be valuable for finding out the drawbacks of federal and regional legislation and for identifying the ways it can be improved. It may also result in general insights about Russian lawmaking under joint jurisdiction. The study presented in this paper aimed to find the regularities in the legislative activity of Russia’s constituent entities in the field of establishing regional categories. For this purpose, the full list of regional categories as of August 1, 2019 was made and then processed with text mining algorithms, including word clouds, bigram analysis, word correlations, and clustering of categories’ names using their vector representations made with Fasttext. Several large groups of regional categories were determined as a result: protected natural objects (analogous to natural monuments), protected landscapes and natural complexes, protected green zones of populated localities, recreational areas, and areas of historical and cultural designation, which are similar to cultural heritage objects. Some constituent entities fill the gaps in federal regulation; they follow the paradigm of anticipatory lawmaking and provide for special rules for territories under international agreements, such as wetlands of international importance, or they partially implement protected area categories adopted by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. However, some regional categories are likely to indicate a low level of legal technique in regional lawmaking. This analysis of regional categories points out three deficiencies of the Russian federal legislation on protected areas: instability of legislation, excessive rigidity of the federal categories system, and flaws in the protection of areas valuable for conservation of biodiversity, recreation, and support for ecological balance.</p> Pavel Syomin Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Transformations of Governmentality Regimes under the Influenceof New Areas of Knowledge: the Case of Behavioral Economics <p class="text">This article is a review of relevant scientific literature on the consequences of the growing popularity of behavioral economics in the field of public administration and public policy. The main result of behavioral research that arose in the 1970s at the intersection of psychology and economics was the discovery of irrational decision-making mechanisms and the rejection of the traditional economic concepts of human nature. Revision of the axioms of the rational choice theory in turn made possible the emergence of new public policy instruments that can influence unconscious psychological triggers, compensating for the cognitive insufficiency of the governed subjects. An active appeal to cognitive sciences, including behavioral economics, neuroscience, and research in the field of artificial intelligence, is one of the main trends in modern public administration. In many countries, the recommendations of the so-called nudge theory by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein are being introduced at the national government level. The question arises whether behavioral economics can become the new paradigm of economic policy, or whether we are witnessing the radicalization of neoliberalism, which is trying to overcome the structural economic problems with the help of new scientific discoveries. Using Michel Foucault’s governmentality analytics and existing research on this topic, the author shows that conceptual changes in economic theory significantly influence the balance of power relations in society. In particular, the pressure of modern cognitive sciences on liberal notions of autonomy, as well as the expansion of the range of psychological tools used to govern the population, sharpen the question of the compatibility of the basic political categories of liberalism and the new technologies of governance. It creates the prerequisites for the formation and strengthening of quasi-authoritarian regimes of power that are able to achieve economic efficiency without appealing to active subjects and personal freedom.</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Condition of Postmodernity. An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change (an excerpt) <p>The book by David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity. An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change, presented deep research into the nature of postmodernism, considered not as a set of ideas but rather as historical conditions. The author claimed that roughly since 1972 cultural as well as political and economic practices changed globally, including the rise of postmodern cultural forms and the emergence of flexible capital accumulation. According to the author, those changes were conditioned by the new prevailing modes of how people experienced time and space, indicating the new cycle of time-space compression in the organization of capitalism. The book consists of four parts. In the first part, Prof. Harvey reviewed the dominating but conflicting theories of postmodernism. In the other chapters he considered the relationship between the dynamics of the historical and geographical development of capitalism, complicated processes of cultural production, and ideological transformation. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the tenth chapter, “Theorizing the Transition,” from the second part of the book, “The Political-Economic Transformation of Late Twentieth-Century Capitalism.” In this chapter, the author demonstrated that existing theories had difficulties in explaining the observed historical transition from Fordism to flexible accumulation. In order to overcome these problems, Harvey proposed a return to capitalism's origins to reconsider its logic generally with the help of Marx’s theories.</p> Вфмшв Harvey Copyright (c) Thu, 02 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Subjective Well-being of Migrants in Russia: Effects of Regional Characteristics and Migration Legislation <p>Migration is an important and rapidly growing phenomenon in the modern world. Many countries are facing problems with integration and adaption of migrants to new living conditions. Subjective well-being (SWB) can be considered as an indicator of how successfully migrants are adapted and integrated into the host society. Levels of migrants’ SWB are often determined by the same factors as for other people—good health, high salary, employment and youth make them happier. Nonetheless, migrants’ decision to migrate is often led by economic motives, which leads them to overvalue economic characteristics of countries and regions of destination and undervalue non-economic factors. This paper aims to estimate the effects of the economic prosperity (measured by gross regional product) and social capital of Russian regions (measured by general social trust and relative size of the community of the migrant’s compatriots) on the life satisfaction of migrants. In addition, we analyze possible effect of the inclusion of the migrants’ country of origin into Eurasian Customs Union. To answer the proposed questions we employed data of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey—Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE) and statistics provided by Russian Federal State Statistics Service. The main method of analysis is a cross-classified multilevel linear regression modeling. The results show that the economic performance of a region has no effect on the life satisfaction of a migrant. It appears that social factors play a greater role—the effects of general social trust and the relative size of the community of a migrant’s compatriots in a region are positive and statistically significant. We found that inclusion of the country of migrants’ origin into the Eurasian Customs Union positively and significantly affects the life satisfaction of migrants. We associate this effect with a decrease in the economic and psychological costs of migration.</p> Emil Kamalov, Eduard Ponarin Copyright (c) Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The One-Sided Participation <p>This book by three prominent researchers of communities' cultures and the technological impact on the society includes a conversation in the title and takes it seriously. The text is a compilation of authors’ talks about applying the definition of participatory culture to the analysis of diverse spheres of social life and is an implicit call to join the conversation, argue for theses and offer your own at the same time.<br>Each author unsurprisingly has his or her own interpretation of the major definition of participatory culture, but all of them feel deeply involved in their research subject, which M. Weber has warned against: All three scientists identify themselves as former or present natives of the participatory culture. The deep emotional involvement in the research subject leaves a trace and, in our view, complements the analysis.<br>Hence the authors have not only made fruitful (almost autobiographical) research into participatory culture but also have made very useful social recommendations about the efficient and cautious application of it in the educational sphere and resolution of the intergenerational conflicts and have called on researchers generally not to marginalize the representatives of participatory cultures’ communities. Of course, promotion of democratizing, educational and other positive roles of the participatory culture is important and very practical. Alongside its analysis of participatory cultures the book includes an updated look at the traditional definitions of social groups, social networks and forms of capital. In this review, the author tries to systematize scientists’ points of view on the most prominent themes highlighted in the book. Moreover we had the opportunity to join the conversation with these three eminent scientists and mentally visit (and present to the reader) the living room of Henry Jenkins, which was the site of most of the conversations in the book.</p> Ilya Pavlov Copyright (c) Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Work Practices of Older Population Groups: Reasons for Choice <p>The most important challenge for developed and developing countries of the 21st century, in the opinion of the United Nations, is increasing lifespans alongside fertility reduction. This is shown to result in the maintenance of older people’s health and labor activity at an average level. At the same time high developed IT leads to a growing sharing economy. This results in labor market changes and global digitalization of the economy compounds this. At the same time the economic crises lead to reducing household incomes. There are a lot of older population groups in the labor market at an age when their parents had already retired, so youth unemployment stems from older people competing with younger for jobs. Aggressive ageism is one of the characteristics of such a situation. Governments are paying people to retire later. As a result, the labor market consists of senior employees who are trying to give their family an acceptable standard of living even if they are old enough to retire, and young and middle-aged employees. These groups compete with each other, and the more heterogeneous the labor force, the more intense the competition becomes. As a result, countries propose political programs to reduce the negative impact of the demographic crisis. For Russia this problem is also a current problem. But Russia is beginning its path. It needs to interpret the experiences of Western countries and choose its own way. This article offers a detailed examination of the labor practices of older population groups. The first labor practice investigated is leaving the labor market, the second is employment and the third is self-employment, including entrepreneurship. The author shows how the classification of causes leads to the choice of a specific strategy at labor market. She theorizes that neoliberalism gives older people a new ability to help country economy, rather than being disability recipients. As a result, the author concludes that although the problem of the aging population in Russia and in developed countries is the same, but a common practice is not suitable. And the new Russian pension reform that increases the retirement age may lead to a national catastrophe as older people have difficulties to find work and have no cash savings.</p> Maria Kartuzova Copyright (c) Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Regional Differences in Access to Educational Resources, Academic Results and Students’ Trajectories in Russia <p>Today little is known about regional inequality in education in Russia. In this article we analyze regional differences in educational resources in association with regions’ socio-economic characteristics, and in addition we assess the relationship of regions’ socio-economic characteristics and educational resources with the proportion of students remaining in high school as well as with the average results of the Unified State Exam (end of high school test) in two compulsory subjects—Russian and math. We test theories of effectively maintained inequality and maximally maintained inequality using data of Russia regions that we retrieve from open sources—publications of Rosstat and federal and regional education agencies. To estimate the relationship we use correlation and regression analysis. Our results show that more urbanized regions with higher levels of human capital and GRP are usually characterized by the higher level of school expenditures, more experienced teachers, and higher chances for students to study at the advanced level. The same time, the level of urbanization and human capital is positively related to the proportion of students that choose an academic trajectory after finishing secondary school. Finally, the results of the Unified State Exam are also positively associated with access to educational resources. In both subjects, the average test score is higher in the regions with a higher proportion of students in lyceums/gymnasiums and in schools with advanced study options. In Russian, the exam results are also related to the proportion of students remaining in high school. In general, regional inequality in access to educational resources overlaps with socio-economic differences, which produces a situation of double loss or double advantage. Greater access to better educational resources in regions with higher human capital supports effectively maintained inequality theory. At the same time the fact that a lower proportion of students choose an academic trajectory after grade 9 in regions with less human capital could be evidence of maximally maintained inequality. The article could be interesting to readers whose area of study relates to problems of education inequality and education policy.</p> Andrey Zakharov, Kseniya Adamovich Copyright (c) Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Basic Income: A Radical Proposal for a Free Society and a Sane Economy (excerpts) <p>The idea of providing people with income independently of the job they perform or seek seems mad. However, providing each individual (rich and poor, economically active and inactive) with an unconditional basic income was supported by such famous thinkers as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill, and John Kenneth Galbraith. For a long time this idea has not been taken seriously. At present, as the traditional welfare state has been straining under an increasing pressure, the basic income has become the most popular social policy project to discuss worldwide. Philippe Van Parijs and Yannick Vanderborght argue that the basic income can overcome the economic insecurity and social exclusion of the 21st century. The authors combine some evidence from philosophy, politics and economics in order to compare the proposal of a basic income with other projects to alleviate poverty and unemployment, trace its history, and find answers to economic and political arguments against unconditional income, including the argument about a tendency to decreased stimulus and free-rider models of behavior that might result from the basic income; to explain how this seemingly impossible idea can be achieved economically and politically; and to consider its applicability to the extending global economy. In the age of increasing inequality and political fragmentation, when the old answers to deeply embedded social issues are not credible, the basic income offers the hope of achieving a free society and a sane economy. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes some excerpts from the first chapter “The Instrument of Freedom” in which the authors provide the main considerations in favor of an unconditional basic income, demonstrating how it solves the problems of poverty and unemployment as well as how, as one of the most important elements of a sustainable emancipatory institutional infrastructure, it can become a tool of freedom.</p> Philippe Van Parijs, Yannick Vanderborght Copyright (c) Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p>.</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Interview with John W. Meyer: If You Study Organizations You Should Not Believe in Them (interviewed by Elena Gudova) <p>An interview with John W. Meyer, emeritus Professor of Sociology, and by courtesy Education, at Stanford University, was conducted in October 2019 during his visit to the 10th International Russian Higher Education Conference (RHEC) in Moscow on “Contributions of Higher Education to Society and Economy: Global, National and Local Perspectives.” The interview was performed by Elena Gudova, PhD and a lecturer in the Department of Economic Sociology at the Higher School of Economics. John Meyer talks about the rise of hyper-managerialism and its implications for modern organizations. While previously, organizations tended to be subordination actors, today they have more legitimation in choosing mission and purposes, which marks a shift from management authority toward leadership and implies a need for managers with charismatic qualities. Business schools, in their courses and educational processes, emphasize the importance of failures as part of entrepreneurs’ experiences, while questions of vision are rarely a part of the agenda. Still, even a great charismatic leader/entrepreneur may lack authority because of a decontextualized vision as local communities’ interests are usually not represented. Organizations with good vision (i.e., with proper corporate social responsibilities) may legitimate themselves through the routinization of the leader’s charisma, the incorporation of norms of good citizenship, and the self-management of employees and citizens. As Meyer puts it, “You have to be an okay-person in the modern hyper-organizational context.” Due to these new scripts in the character of an individual, John Meyer discusses distinctions between the American and German educational systems and some possible outcomes for the world based on the German educational model instead of on the American one. As current types of organizational responses might be treated as invasive for individuals (even though they are useful in many ways), the German system resists many of the hyper-liberal changes in a much better way. Another focus of Meyer’s interests is connected with changes in universities and those in science in general. He talks about the mutual influence of society and academia and the legitimation of scientific knowledge, both per se and in educational process. A simple, but still important, issue regards keeping a research distance and asking the right questions, as moral commitment might weaken the research. The solution may be in comparing education to the forces that produce the observed changes, and not to what we imagine to be an ideal educational process and product.</p> John W. Meyer Copyright (c) Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0300 International workshop “The Varieties of Power in the Economy”, NRU HSE, Moscow, July 3–4, 2020 <p>Journal of Economic Sociology. Vol. 21. No 1. January 2020www.ecsoc.hse.ru140International workshopThe Varieties of Power in the Economy3–4 July 2020Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, National Research University “Higher School of Economics” (NRU HSE), Moscow, Russia</p> <p>Deadline for Submissions—15 February 2020</p> Copyright (c) Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0300 International workshop “The Varieties of Power in the Economy”, NRU HSE, Moscow, July 3–4, 2020 <p>Journal of Economic Sociology. Vol. 21. No 1. January 2020www.ecsoc.hse.ru140International workshopThe Varieties of Power in the Economy3–4 July 2020Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, National Research University “Higher School of Economics” (NRU HSE), Moscow, Russia</p> <p>Deadline for Submissions—15 February 2020</p> Copyright (c) Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Between Gift and Profit: Appropriative Practices as a New Approach to Digital Economy Analysis <p>The author of the book sets the non-trivial task of developing an approach to the economic analysis that would include the diversity of economic practices and at the same time indicate the recipients of benefits. In criticizing the ideas of Marxists and mainstream economists, the author concludes that they are unable to see economies beyond capitalism and market relations, which automatically excludes gifts and hybrid economic forms from any economic analysis. Five case studies from the digital economy of Apple, Wikipedia, Google, YouTube and Facebook demonstrate the analytical potential of a new approach—the political economy of practices, which considers the diversity of economic practices. By putting emphasis on various combinations of appropriating practices, the author demonstrates the success of the enterprises in the digital economy, which cannot be explained by perfect competition or the exploitation of wage labor.<br>This book is an excellent example of the substantive approach to economic analysis and would be especially interesting to those who are interested in the coexistence of market and non-market economic forms, particularly in the digital world.</p> Maria Denisova Copyright (c) Fri, 31 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Dynamics of Middle Classes: Between Expansion and Uncertainty Russian-French Scientific Conference, NRU HSE, Moscow, October 3rd, 2019 <p>The conference “Dynamics of Middle Classes: Between Expansion and Uncertainty” was conducted at NRU HSE. The conference was devoted to stratification issues in general and the middle class in particular. The conference was organized by the Institute for Social Policy NRU HSE and the French Embassy in Russia.<br>The topic of the middle class has been popular for a long time, but there is still no unique definition for this notion. The participants in the conference managed to touch upon three levels of work in terms of “the middle class”: theory, methodology, and empirical studies. Regarding the theory of the middle class, the presenters mentioned that economic and sociological theories exist and are described in their main theoretical models. The analysis of different papers devoted to the middle class provides the ability to show diversity at a methodological level, including the diversity of criteria used for middle class identification. Nevertheless, the common idea for most of the approaches is the idea of object complexity and the necessity to combine several characteristics to identify the middle class. Appealing to empirical studies of the middle class in Russia and France showed that in both countries, the middle class is not homogenous, and it is better to use the term “middle classes.” In Russia, the middle class has relatively high levels of well-being but is not autonomous from the state. However, it does not feel that social protection is critical due to existing inequalities and a lack of stability in society.</p> Elena Nazarbaeva Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0300 “When a Failed Contract is Better than Doable”: How a “New” Understanding of Financial Obligations in the Mortgage Market Led to the Financial Crisis in the United States and Around the World <p>A book from an American anthropologist of Indian origin, Arjun Appadurai, was written much later than the World Financial Crisis of 2007–2008 (WFC). The book introduces the origins of the crisis not from a purely economic position, but from a “substantive” perspective through the prism of economic anthropology and sociology. In this book, Appadurai seeks answers to the question of how the financial systems of some countries began to rely on a large set of “special” arrangements via working with derivatives, thus being tied to great risks and serious uncertainty. Appadurai introduces the principle of “failure of the language,” meaning the communication between financial participants and their intermediaries, emphasizing that the “risks” of non-fulfillment have been “forced” to be more important and mostly more profitable than the direct fulfillment of obligations. The resulting economic collapse was possible to clarify and “foresee” by considering the nature of long-term financial obligations (particularly derivatives), placing them into the analytical frameworks of M. Weber, compared to the logic of E. Durkheim and K. Marx, F. Knight, and E. Ayash. The value of the book is in the understanding of modern financial ideology, where “flirting” with uncertainty and working with “air” are considered as working practices. In a series of chapters, Appadurai indicates the hidden “spiritual” power of contractual obligations, which to some extent, fits into the logic of the Western capitalist system. At the same time, it casts a shadow on the nature of contracts, in particular the capitalist one — their assimilation into “scoring,” “promise,” speculation and excitement, which benefit more than the actual activity of people. The central empirical object of the book is that CDS is in the mortgage lending market, in which “overheating” was provoked (in many respects) by the WFC. The review attempts to disentangle the logic of the presentation of all nine non-standardly written chapters of the work, with subsequent analysis and reasoning over the aspects left over from the framework of the author's argumentation system. We believe that the review complements these theses.</p> Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Paradoxes Legality—Illegality—Legitimacy Intersections in the Architecture of Markets <p>Boundaries of illegality in markets for goods and services are blurring. These boundaries are associated with the development of capitalist relations. The illegality becomes pervasive and gains increasingly sophisticated links with formal legality and social legitimacy. At the same time, the role of the state in the illegal market exchanges is intensified by preserving the institutional gap between formal and informal rules. In this respect, the book The Architecture of Illegal Markets. Towards an Economic Sociology of Illegality in the Economy develops a non-trivial research task for the modern economic-sociological paradigm. Its authors contest the existence of boundaries between the phenomena of legality and legitimacy, including mechanisms for compliance with informal rules within formal institutions that regulate illegal markets. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the paradoxical interdiction of legality and legitimacy that the book’s authors describe, using the metaphor of interfaces that build the essence of illegal market architectures. The review reference points are the most important topics that the authors of the conference proceedings mention, such as the types and components of illegality in the markets of goods and services; the question of the boundaries between legality, illegality, and legitimacy; and the role of the state in the development of illegality in the markets. This text concludes that the book draws the landscape of illegality, which is viewed in close association with the phenomena of legality and legitimacy. The authors’ research goes beyond the phenomenon of illegality and expands the understanding of the informal economy constituents.</p> Yuliya Belova Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Interview with Joseph Vogl. Intellectual History and Political Economy of Modern Capitalism (interviewed by Ivan Boldyrev) <p>The contemporary positions of economic theory and the modern development of the capitalist system were the main topics of discussion with Prof. Joseph Vogl. Several questions were discussed regarding aesthetics, historical and political contexts, the temporality of economic knowledge, and its reflexivity. Prof. Vogl spoke about his studies aimed at the investigation of aesthetic representation and the poetics of economic models and abstractions in different genres, such as literature, theatre, and poetry. During the conversation, Prof. Vogl problematized the objectivity of conclusions in economic disciplines, while economics has not been considered in a historical context that forms an agenda. The author problematized the objectivity of conclusions that pretend to be in the economic discipline, although economics has not been considered as a historical context that forms its agenda. Prof. Vogl claimed that modern economic theory, like early political economy, is historically rooted in its agenda determined by the structure of power interests. Furthermore, the expansion process of financial markets represents the development of new forms of governmentality and institutional order. Through these forms, financial capital becomes the lender of last resort, which is not subordinate to central banks and federal governments.</p> Joseph Vogl Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Are Russian Students Ready to be Law-Abiding Taxpayers? Tax Morality Issues <p>Tax morality is formed by the influence of social and psychology factors on society and has a great impact on the choice of deviating model behaviors by taxpayers. In this regard, tax evasion would be preferable to use in the behavioral economy instrumentarium, as it provides an opportunity to evaluate the effects of norms and behavior stereotypes formed in an individual choice. A survey among students from districts in the North-Caucasus Federal Region was held to estimate the level of tax morale. The results were analyzed using the z-test and the model formation of binary logistic regression. The research results have shown that interviewees are ready to evade tax legislation, even though most express a strong reluctance to attempt tax evasion. The main reasons for this are a low level of confidence in the legal system, the perception of the tax system as unfair, and the social norm distortions and the existence of entrenched behavioral stereotypes. With these stereotypes, tax evasion is not perceived as a grave violation. The existence of an unfair tax system, with a focus on retributive justice, leads to the violation of a psychological party to the agreement between the state and taxpayers as the appearance of “moral reasons” for the excuses of strategy choice for the tax evasion. In this regard, the integration of social norms, which regulate the interaction of the tax payers and the state, as well as a stimulating mechanism of loyalty enhancement on base of expanding frontiers in collaboration, into the system of tax administration will enable to create an alternative way of the rational choice for the tax players which will be not only morally praiseworthy but also economically justified.</p> Vladimir Molodykh Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Theatre, the Audience and the State: Twelve Economist’s Comments <p>Rubinstein’s article presents the results of the “First All-Russian Sociological Survey of Theater Audience,” which covered all Federal Districts and constituent entities of the Russian Federation (about 200 cities), in which more than 90% of all professional theaters are registered. More than 12,000 respondents expressed their opinions by answering a special questionnaire posted on the sites of the regional branches of the Union of Theater Workers, special theatrical tickets, and their own theatre sites, as well as several higher educational institutions. For the first time, this work reveals the preferences of the public, from their attitudes toward the repertoire posters of Russian theaters and traditional and innovative productions to the creative composition of theaters and their functions, including performances in movie theaters. A fundamentally new result is a measured audience assessment of the creative potential of Russian theaters, which made it possible to find the reasons that impede its full implementation. The obtained sociological information characterizes the assessments and behavior of the theatrical audience. The results of economic analysis, using official statistics, made it possible to view the whole process of creating performances comprehensively look at the whole process of creating performances and their public demonstration as well as the production and consumption of theater goods, including the relationship between state and municipal theaters. Their founders, who are fulfilling their budgetary obligations, finance theatrical activities. It is known that due to budgetary underfunding of theaters and the commercialization of their activities, which caused an inflationary increase in ticket prices, about 30% of the audience experience financial difficulties in attending performances. Students and pensioners “suffer” most of all, which not only worsens the quality of their life but also harms the growth of the theater’s audience. Based on the construction of the econometric model, recommendations were formulated, aimed at creating conditions for the complete realization of theatrical potential and an increase in attendance.</p> Alexander Rubinstein Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Tomorrow 3.0: Transaction Costs and the Sharing Economy (an excerpt) <p>According to Michael Munger, there is some evidence of the Third Great Economic Revolution, which can be traced within two dimensions: the sharing economy and the brokerage economy. Although in many industries, these two dimensions are far from each other, in some spheres where they interact, their intersection results in extending the new economy. In his book, Prof. Munger describes the features of the sharing economy; entrepreneurship is oriented toward cuts of transactional expenses rather than production expenses, use of new basic program tools, a business running with the help of mobile intellectual equipment, and an internet connection. In turn, the emergence of a brokerage economy results from skills used to sell cuts of transactional costs, opening new opportunities for mutually gained exchanges that have not yet been perceived as commercial. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the first chapter, “The World of Tomorrow 3.0,” where the author describes key features of the new economy resulting from the Third Great Economic Revolution. It means that innovations with the usage of digital technologies come to the fore, allowing more intensive usage of durable goods and reducing the total number of circulated goods. As a result, the human experience turns out to be more important than the obtained things, thus changing the idea of private property dramatically.</p> Michael C. Munger Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Trust vs. Disorientation: Economy of the Russian-Speaking ‘Migrant’ Groups in Social Media (The Case of VKontakte) <p>The article discusses the economic practices presented in the “migrant” groups in the social network VKontakte. “Migrant” groups refer to groups positioned as communication platforms for migrants, which is reflected either in the name of the group (for example, “migrant bulletin”) or mentioned in its description. “Migrant” groups are quite a common phenomenon; almost every major Russian city has digital communities that position themselves as platforms for discussing migration issues. Social media plays an important role in migration processes, acting as a tool to minimize the information deficit as one of the effective mechanisms of integration. One of the key functions of “migrant” social media is seen as partial compensation for the deficit of social capital in the host country, therefore-minimizing the costs and risks associated with a particular stage of the migration process. At the same time, Russian-speaking “migrant” digital communities rarely come into the research field. In this regard, the question arises: do “migrant” sites in Russian social networks perform the same functions? Is it possible to talk about the existence of a “migrant” economy in the Russian-speaking digital media, and what does it represent? Is it possible, in principle, to expect to extract from Russian-language “migrant” sites any valuable information about the economic activity of migrants, given all the difficulties associated with qualitative research of digital communities? The search for answers to these questions was the purpose of this study. Forty Russian-speaking groups in the social network VKontakte were selected and positioned as “migrant” and at the same time, “live,” containing user dialogues in open access. Next, the search and analysis of messages containing mentions of purchase and sale, exchange, rent, donations of various types, services, and information were carried out. As a result, it was possible to construct several summaries. In particular, the “migrant” economy in VKontakte can be divided into two categories: the economy for migrants, and the economy on migrants. Both are linked to a lack of information and social capital. In the first group, we attributed the practice of freely providing their information and services that allow us to eliminate this deficit or partially reduce its cost. The second group included practices that exploit the lack of social capital of migrants, such as paid legal services, trade in documents, involvement in alternative integration, and — often associated with illegal activities — integration trajectories.</p> Dmitriy Timoshkin Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Official (Biomedical) Obstetrics and Alternative (Home) Midwifery: Formalized and Informal Interaction Practices <p>The article discusses the interaction practices between the formal system of obstetric aid and alternative (home) midwifery, which together constitute a continuum of formal and informal in the sphere of medical services. For the analysis of these practices, I turn to critical medical anthropology and such important concepts for this research area as resistance to medicalization and medical pluralism. I also rely on the social studies of public health that regard it as an organizational field in which different types of institutional logics compete and come into the conflict: professional, state (or bureaucratic), and managerial.<br>In the first part of the article, I show that the care in a home birth can be provided by both amateur midwives and certified medical specialists, such as obstetrician-gynecologists and midwives of the maternity hospitals, although in Russia, this activity qualifies as illegal. In the second part of the article, I discuss how, as a result of the conflict of institutional logics reinforced by several waves of health care reforms, various options have emerged for the formalized interaction of home midwives with maternity hospitals. At present, the most common practice is the part-time employment of midwives in the commercial departments of state maternity hospitals. The third part of the article is devoted to the analysis of the informal interaction of domestic midwives with maternity hospitals. I show that these practices arise in place of serious institutional gaps in the system and represent attempts to organize natural childbirth within the framework of the free-of-charge state medicine. In general, it can be argued that the dominant biomedical models of obstetric care and alternative midwifery do not exist in isolation from each other, but instead create complex and contradictory relationships of cooperation, confrontation, and competition. The study is based on in-depth interviews with home midwives, obstetrician-gynecologists and midwives working in maternity hospitals, as well as with women with home birth experience.</p> Anna Ozhiganova Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p>.</p> Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0300 XXI April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development, April 6 –10, 2020, Moscow <p>On April 6–10, 2020 in Moscow, National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE Univer-sity), with the support of the World Bank, will be hosting the XXI April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development. The Conference’s Programme Committee will be chaired by Professor Evgeny Yasin, HSE University’s academic supervisor.T he Conference features a diverse agenda concerning social and economic development in Russia. The Conference programme will include presentations by Russian and international academics, roundtables and plenary sessions with participation of members of the Government of the Russian Federation, government officials, business representatives, and leading Russian and foreign experts.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Future We Create: Fictional Expectations as a Tool of Social Dynamics <p>This paper is a review of Imagined Futures: Fictional Expectations and Capitalist Dynamics, written by Jens Beckert and published in 2016. Prof. Beckert leads the Max-Plank Institute for the Study of Societies in Cologne. His works are in the fields of new economic sociology, economic anthropology and valuation studies. The last approach largely owes its existence to Beckertian theorizing. Imagined Futures highlights temporal perception in capitalist societies and the role of future expectations in the processes of capitalist dynamics. Beckertian theses also justify the importance of valuation studies and revise the role of economic forecasts. According to his central idea, economic forecasts cannot provide reliable future predictions due to the ontological uncertainty described by economic theory itself. Instead of looking into the future, the main function of forecasts is posited to be the coordination of social actions. The reduction of uncertainty provided by economic forecasts is essential for effective market function and the stability of social dynamics. This review proposes an interpretation of the theories outlined in the book and seeks to emphasize the importance of the author’s conclusions for valuation studies, new economic sociology and especially for studying the performative side of economic theory. The first part of the paper suggests the deeper historical roots of Imagined Futures. Next, the alternative philosophical frame for fictional expectations is discussed, and a systematization of fictional expectations is proposed. The paper’s second part problematizes capitalistic production and consumption described by Beckert as the foundation of the modern social order. Additionally, an ontological sense of future planning and capitalist dynamics is introduced in the context of symbolic consumption. The paper finishes by describing another aspects of performativity made by models of economic theory.</p> Boris Belyavskiy Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Flexible Organizational Structure and Typology of the Informal Small Entrepreneurship in Russia <p>In this article, based on relevant domestic and foreign literature, the institutional (i.e., “narrower”) approach to the definition of informal entrepreneurship and the informal entrepreneurial activity are substantiated, and an analysis of their causes and practices in the conditions of modern Russia is delivered. Using data from the panel study of start-ups and small entrepreneurs conducted by the author (Moscow, 2013–2015), the paper addresses the following issues: (1) Are there any differences in the nature of ownership relations in those businesses that are partially or primarily informally led, from the classical property relations in entrepreneurial firms described in academic literature? (2) What are the types of SMEs, and why are those that use informal practices more common? (3) What role does interaction with State control and law enforcement bodies play in decision making of entrepreneurs as to whether to operate informally, and what are the possible alternatives? (4) What are the comparative advantages and risks/constraints of informal entrepreneurship? (5) Is there entrepreneurial motivation and the inclination for informal kinds of activity in the business and, if so, how? The main evidence of the article consists in the following: an important reason for the informality in micro and small businesses is a diffuse structure of property relations, which is a hybrid (mixed) form of a market and firm. An own typology of entrepreneurs is invented, based on various combinations of entrepreneurial motivation and levels of formalization of the latter. As a result, four ideal types of entrepreneurs are introduced, namely “stars,” “non-routine entrepreneurs,” “simpletons,” and “marginals.” The two latter are the main actors of the informal entrepreneurial activity of legally registered businesses and totally informal entrepreneurship, respectively. In conclusion, there are some practical recommendations formulated on opportunities to reduce informal entrepreneurial practices, based, among others, on the understanding of the differences between the aforementioned ideal types of entrepreneurs.</p> Alexander Chepurenko Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Ovsey Shkaratan (1931–2019) <p>Professor Shkaratan, who passed away on July 31, 2019, was a professor emeritus of the Higher School of Economics, head of the Laboratory of Comparative Analysis of Post-Socialist Societies (National Research University Higher School of Economics), as well as founder and editor-in-chief of the journal Universe of Russia.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Ovsey Shkaratan (1931–2019) <p>Professor Shkaratan, who passed away on July 31, 2019, was a professor emeritus of the Higher School of Economics, head of the Laboratory of Comparative Analysis of Post-Socialist Societies (National Research University Higher School of Economics), as well as founder and editor-in-chief of the journal Universe of Russia.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 XXI April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development, April 6–10, 2020, Moscow <p>On April 6–10, 2020 in Moscow, National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE Univer-sity), with the support of the World Bank, will be hosting the XXI April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development. The Conference’s Programme Committee will be chaired by Professor Evgeny Yasin, HSE University’s academic supervisor.T he Conference features a diverse agenda concerning social and economic development in Russia. The Conference programme will include presentations by Russian and international academics, roundtables and plenary sessions with participation of members of the Government of the Russian Federation, government officials, business representatives, and leading Russian and foreign experts.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Mikolaj Piskorski’s “Social Strategy”: A Recipe for Profiting from Internet Platforms, to Which a Sociologist Has Many Questions <p>Mikolai Piskorski’s book, with a somewhat misleading title (because he is not interested in media at all), offers an approach to analyzing human interaction and evaluating the effectiveness of Internet platforms, with which readers should learn how to use Internet platforms for profit. Human interaction is seen as rational behavior, in terms of benefits and costs—the latter, according to Piskorski, should be reduced by Internet platforms. It is assumed that in return for companies helping people communicate with each other through social platforms, users will be ready to do something for the companies—pay more for their products, or do free work (bring new customers, generate content). Piskorski demonstrates how his approach works, both by analyzing how platforms (for example, Facebook, Twitter, dating applications, LinkedIn) manage to reduce interaction costs and by showing examples of business strategies of different companies (for example, American Express, Nike) that use the platforms. Despite the fact that the book gives the impression of being oriented not only (and, it seems, not so much) to the academic audience, but also to practitioners, it has the ambition to influence economists and sociologists as well. In this regard, the author of the review sees it as her task to look at the work of Piskorski, considering its position in the space of existing social theory in both economics and sociology. Piskorski sees the novelty of his approach in its attention to the social, interactions, and social norms, but Piskorski’s book remains deeply economic in its nature and therefore can be met with classical sociological criticism—reproaches for statements that are too universal and insensitivity to context. These properties of Piskorski’s approach are at times detrimental to the analysis of diverse and extremely interesting data and leave room for critical commentary from the field of Internet research.</p> Oksana Dorofeeva Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Why Should We Pay More Attention to Skills Deployment? <p>In this book, the issues of skills formation and utilization in the system of formal education and in the labor market are discussed. The recent mainstream concepts of skills are critically analyzed alongside the less known, alternative perspectives. The book addresses several myths related to skills formation and deployment. The first one concerns the relationship between skills and wages; the second is about the demand for “soft” skills in the future economy; the third one addresses the growth of high-skilled jobs; and the fourth one looks at supply-led skills policies. In the handbook, the necessity of a paradigmatic shift from skills formation towards their better utilization is discussed across the fields of education sciences, economics, and political studies. Based on the analysis of recent empirical evidence, the authors elaborate the concepts of social construction of skills, “skills ecosystems,” capabilities and skills, and others. The authors compare institutions and skills policies, including the systems of qualifications, in various countries. Still, most of the empirical illustrations and theoretical concepts presented in the book refer rather to the developed market economies, whereas the analysis of the situation in other countries, in particular, in BRICS, is quite limited. Nevertheless, the handbook is without doubt of high interest to the Russian readership, as it is, probably, the first successful attempt to systematize and critically reassess the existing knowledge in the fields of skills formation and utilization.</p> Natalia Karmaeva Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Everyday Mobility of Youth in Small Ural Cities <p>The article discusses practices with regard to the daily mobility of young people in the middle-sized Ural monotowns of Revda and Krasnoturyinsk. Both cities enter the orbits of the agglomerations, one of which is formed around Ekaterinburg, and the other in the north of the region. Similar in size, they are located close to (Revda) and far from (Krasnoturyinsk) the regional center. The population of Revda is growing, and that of Krasnoturyinsk, on the contrary, is decreasing. Practices with regard to the daily mobility of the population of these cities depend on the existing transport network, various deficits, and information resources. We are interested in two expressions of everyday transport mobility: internal and external. Mobility practices develop in trajectories and routes that become elements of urban spaces and fill the territory’s transport infrastructure, giving it social significance and a kind of “weight,” depending on who actualizes these trajectories and how often. The focus of the study is the experience of young citizens, because it is they who, firstly, broadcast the assessments of the transport situation in the city; secondly, they actively move around the city both with parents/relatives and with friends or alone; thirdly, it is the young people, especially after graduation, that create the flow of outgoing mobility. During 2018, 60 individual semiformalized interviews with experts and residents of the studied cities and 11 group discussions among high school students and college students (224 participants) using drawing techniques constituted the empirical basis of the study. The attractiveness for young people of such territories as Revda and Krasnoturinsk is largely based on the diversity of places and the ability to give existing ones new meanings. The results of the study show that the space of their town is considered to be mastered and well-known by young people, which increases interest in other, less familiar territories. The expansion of mobility opportunities in the format of agglomerations does not contribute to the intention of schoolchildren to return to their hometown after receiving a vocational education, which creates a problem in providing enterprises with highly qualified personnel. Thus, the development of the daily mobility of youths is not an opposition to territorial rootedness and affection, but creates new challenges for the development of a local, regional, and interregional labor market.</p> Natalya Veselkova , Mikhail Vandyshev , Elena Pryamikova, Anna Danilova Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Will the Gig Economy Prevail? <p>The book Will the Gig Economy Prevail? by Prof. Colin Crouch is devoted to the “gig economy,” which is seen as set to gradually replace the costly rigidities of the old-fashioned employment contract. In this book, Colin Crouch takes a step back and questions this logic. He shows how the idea of an employee— a stable status that involves a bundle of rights—has maintained a curious persistence. Examining the ways companies are attacking these rights, from proffering temporary work to involuntary part-time work to “gigging,” he reveals the paradoxes of the situation and argues that it should not and cannot continue. He goes on to propose reforms to reverse the perverse incentives that reward irresponsible employers and punish good ones, setting out an agenda for a realistic future of secure work. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the first chapter—“The Rise of Precarious Work”—in which the author considers the notion of the “gig economy” and issues associated with its expansion. It also describes the structure of this book.</p> Colin Crouch Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 To be the Flagship Journal of Russian Sociology: When the Mission Matters <p>The article focuses on the review process employed by academic journals from the perspective of the sociology of organization. We propose a scheme that takes into consideration what is more important for editorial boards (legitimacy or effectiveness) and how they confirm their legitimacy claims (through outputs in the form of papers or through procedures). The conceptual advantage of the scheme is illustrated by the case study of the journal, Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya (Sociological Studies), for the period from 1992 till 2011. Based on an analysis of the journal headings (491 cases of headings and 1230 published papers) and 8 interviews with editors, it is shown that the main task of the editorial board is to represent the discipline in all its diversity through the structural divisions of the journal space and the wide geographical coverage of the authors. Accomplishing this mission of representation in a situation with scarce resources can be maintained only through a special editorial style of the journal, which differs from the obligatory double-blind peer reviewing of all manuscripts submitted. When the editorial office has clear tasks related to the content of the journal, the most appropriate form is the network form of governance because external peer reviews make it difficult to fill journal space. In the acquisition of manuscripts, a network search is combined with the incoming submissions; the crucial role in decision-making belongs to the editor-in-chief. These practices diminish the quality of published manuscripts that are selected for publication in the journal. We explain how less control of editorial practices through the efforts of editors confirm a journal’s claim to fulfill its mission.</p> Katerina Guba Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p><em><span lang="EN-US">Detailed description in the text</span></em></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Interview with Alena Ledeneva: To Control a Level of Informality You Need the Targeted Therapy of Informal Practices <p>In the interview, Professor Alena Ledeneva talks about her research experience, current projects, and plans. She also presents her creative guidelines for analyzing the informal economy’s worlds with the help of a context-sensitive comparative ethnographic study. Rooted in her PhD written in the mid-1990s on the contribution of blat to the functioning of the Soviet economy, the program today provides the basis for the unique empirical project, “The Global Encyclopedia of Informality,” which attracted the participation of 223 research fellows from different countries. Being publicly opened, the Encyclopedia with a base of cases describes a given informal practice’s national versions, including a list of the most recent sociological and anthropological literature for analyzing that practice. This interview demonstrates how sensitivity to ethnography’s methodological challenges allows the author to move from producing a retrospective study of the local empirical phenomenon to theorizing. The theoretical insights that Professor Ledeneva generates help to evaluate the qualities of liberal reforms, including anti-corruption policies. She shows that when the façade of formal institutions is invisibly based on rigidity and double standards, informal practices contribute to both creating and destroying of social systems. Until the conflict between rules issued from the top and reaction from the bottom is taken into account during social and political transformations, the minimizing of corruption will be difficult. In the interview, Professor Ledeneva shares her research experience and demonstrates how she struggled for validity of the conclusions in her qualitative research through comparisons of empirical evidences from different sources. She also discusses the challenges from her in-depth interviews implying discussions of sensitive topics and how they could be overcome. Particularly, Alena refers to her approach to ethnography of informal economy as a “method of slow cooking.” This interview, however, may produce impressions that Alena’s “field kitchen” tends to be molecular.</p> Alena Ledeneva Copyright (c) Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 A Rejoinder to a Contemporary Non-Economist: A Comment on a Comment <p>The article is a rejoinder to a critical assessment of Kapeliushnikov’s study on discursive methods used by M. Weber in The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism that was provided by Ivan Zabaev in his recently published article, “A Nietzschean Take on a Hundred-Dollar Bill: Reading Weber’s ‘Protestant Ethic’: in Connection with a Contemporary Economist’s Comments.” Kapeliushnikov demonstrates that Zabaev’s attempt to view The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism as a treatise on ethics rather than as a scientific study is not justified, and that Weber himself would hardly approve such a moralistic approach. The tendency to substitute a substantive discussion for a manipulation with words is also without merit. For instance, Zabaev’s suggestion that for Weber the German words Gewinn and Erwerb had a diametrically opposite sense is quite absurd. Kapeliushnikov’s commentary pays special attention to Zabaev’s attempts to interpret Weber’s study through a lens of Nietzschean ideas. Paradoxically, this approach has led Zabaev to unequivocally anti-Weberian conclusions. In particular, this Nietzschean interpretation of a famous metaphor of “a steel shell” gets a meaning that is completely at variance with its original conception. Kapeliushnikov concludes that a traditional approach when The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism is seen as a study on economic history or historical sociology rather than as a treatise on ethics is more correct and does not engender numerous aberrations that Zabaev was not capable of avoiding.</p> Rostislav Kapeliushnikov Copyright (c) Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Исламские финансы. Репортаж с XX Апрельской международной научной конференции по проблемам развития экономики и общества, 9–12 апреля 2019 г., Москва, Россия <p>Traditionally, the XXth April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development has been organized at the Higher School of Economics. On the 11th of April 2019, Sheikh Muhammad Taqi Usmani (Darul Uloom Krachi) made an honorary report about Islamic finance in the 21st century. The Sheikh is one of the leading experts of Islamic law, economics, and finance, and he ranks 6th in the “The World’s 500 Most Influential Muslims 2019” [Schleifer 2019]. He currently leads the International Shariah Council for the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions. As a part of his speech, he touched on some aspects related to Islamic finance and its distinctive features. The report also provided an introduction to the functioning of Islamic finance. The Sheikh explained the meaning of the concept as well as its basis, referring to the principles of the Koran. Then he highlighted the main aspect related to Islamic finance—the prohibition of collecting interest. This rule applies not only to Islamic organizations and banks, but also to self-employed entrepreneurs and individuals. Among other things, the speaker touched on the role of Islamic finance during the crisis, demonstrating the positive aspects of the system for both Muslims and people of other faiths.</p> Shushanik Dzhangiryan Copyright (c) Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Nick Srnicek’s Platform Capitalism: Crisis — Response — Boom — Crisis — and Response Again. What Do We Know about the Digital Economy? <p>Nick Srnicek writes a convincing history of the modern digital economy, which has managed to develop numerous myths, hoaxes, and prescientific interpretations. Critical reconstruction of the events that preceded the birth and explosive growth of the digital technologies and products market, on the one hand, avoids their perception and understanding in the self-evident logic of the field (market), and on the other hand, provides an opportunity to perceive the future of digital capitalism. Srnicek is consistently detached from an optimistic view of the economy of the recent past and the near future. However, his argument does not involve discussions between “technopessimists” and “technoptimists,” rather Srnicek analyzes the digital economy and the model of platforms in the logic of a capitalist mode of production and a ruthless competitive race. Its intrinsic logic determines the sequence of economic agents’ actions and the possible image of the future. The crisis dynamics of capitalism of the last decades provide limited space for historical maneuvering and less and less space for political action, so any normative statements mostly lose their power. The analysis focuses on the business model of platforms from the perspective of the historical logic of capitalism aimed at seeking a new source of profitability in the condition of market exhaustion. This condition leads to a redefinition of PO the key categories of perception of the role of technologies in everyday life and in the scale of the economic system in terms of political economy. The reviewer gives a patient exposition of the basic concepts of the book and the theses on which Srnicek’s analysis is based. The text is mainly focused on the reconstruction of the main point of the book but also appeals to an important author for Srnicek, the historian Robert Brenner. The review concludes with a modest critical commentary on the book and a call for a Russian-language discussion of the book, which has already become very influential abroad.</p> David Khumaryan Copyright (c) Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Effects of Social Network on Fertility: The Case of Large Families in Russia <p>The article attempts to answer the question: “How do large families appear in the contemporary world despite economic, social, and institutional constraints?” The study’s thesis focuses on the meso-level (social ties) in the research of processes of fertility. Results show that the typology of mechanisms affecting fertility behavior is based on the tradition of family research in the logic of social network analysis; this is relevant and productive for family studies. The analysis of 25 in-depth interviews with parents from large families reveals several conclusions about the functioning of the mechanisms affecting fertility behavior in the context of modern Russia. The interviews were conducted in Arkhangelsk, Moscow, Moscow region, and Vladimir region and were analyzed according to the Grounded Theory methodology. Data analysis showed that such processes as social contagion, social pressure, social learning, and social support expand the possibilities for a transition to a family with many children. Large families exist in a specific context, formed by the intersection of social ties, which include both existing contacts (kinship, friendship, parish) and emerging contacts on the basis of public organizations (e.g., centers of children’s creativity or family associations). In addition, a large family may become a generator of social capital, reciprocity, and trust in society. The data present fertility as a process embedded in social networks, offer a number of answers to the question “How do social networks influence fertility in large families?”, as well as identify perspectives for further research.</p> Mariia Goleva Copyright (c) Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Role of Family as a Channel of Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteer Traditions in Contemporary Russia <p>The paper focuses on the role of family in forming the consistency of volunteering traditions in contemporary Russia. The paper investigated the correlation between parental volunteering and the current volunteering of their children. International studies indicate that family impact on children’s attitude towards volunteering is a significant channel of intergenerational transmission of prosocial behavioral patterns. One of the viewpoints that draws on the social learning theory (A. Bandura), posits that children model their prosocial behavior, such as volunteering, on the direct example of their parents. Another viewpoint pertaining to the resource theory links the transmission of volunteerism with the transmission of parental social status. Social status transmission can be accompanied by normative pressure since a higher socio-economic status is associated with unpaid voluntary contribution for the benefit of society. The key hypothesis of the research proposes that in Russia, where volunteerism still has not taken root as a sociocultural norm and is not associated with the transmission of social status, the transmission of volunteerism is mostly due to direct family influence and is particularly due to the influence of parental volunteering. The paper presents the results of the All-Russia Representative Survey, which confirm the above hypothesis. Using a linear probability model and the logit model, we show that in Russia, active parental volunteering is likely to be strongly and significantly associated with the respondents’ current volunteering. The results demonstrate stability with the change of the model specification and a set of control variables. The paper has important practical implications for nonprofit organizations on how to engage volunteers of different generations by developing family volunteer programs. Such programs could facilitate early motivation of children to volunteer through direct observation and modeling of parental prosocial behavior.</p> Irina Mersianova, Dmitri Malakhov, Natalya Ivanova Copyright (c) Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Social Factors of Contractor Selection on Freelance Online Marketplace: Study of Contests Using “Big Data” <p>E-markets are online trading platforms designed to improve efficiency of interactions between sellers and buyers of goods and services. E-markets have become a fundamental organizational innovation in the information era. One example is freelance online marketplaces (online labor markets) that allow self-employed professionals (freelancers) and their clients to quickly and cost-effectively find each other anywhere in the world. Online labor markets substantially change the employment landscape and labor relations, actualizing the task of exploring contractual practices and mechanisms introduced by them. Similar to other websites, online labor markets record huge amounts of diverse information about the users and their actions. Utilizing such “big data,” we conducted research using factors that enable freelancers to win employment contests. The contest is one of the most popular mechanisms of freelancer selection, implying an open competition between all the candidates who perform the task set up by the competition organizer who finally determines a winner and pays a remuneration. The study uses open data on contests held from November 2009 to November 2018 on the largest Russianlanguage online marketplace. Data were collected automatically using a web scraping technique. The final sample consists of 6,169 contests, in which 335,613 freelancers took part, and the number of unique participants was 45,174 persons. The study results indicate the absence of persistent discrimination on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics. The results also revealed the important role of formalized reputation (embodied in ratings and reviews) and communication between the freelancer and the employer (in the form of mutual comments) that increase the chances of a freelancer winning a contest. The paper also discusses methodological issues that arise when working with “big data.” In general, this study of contests on freelance online marketplaces leads to the understanding of the role of social factors in the functioning of the new electronic economy based on “big data” generated by this economy.</p> Denis Strebkov, Andrey Shevchuk, Anastasia Lukina, Ekaterina Melianova , Alexey Tyulupo Copyright (c) Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's Foreword <p><em>Detailed description in the text</em></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) Fri, 31 May 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Interview with Bruce G. Carruthers. Brexit, Bitcoin, Big Data: How Historical Analysis Helps Shed Light on What the Future Holds <p>During the first part of the conversation, Bruce Carruthers reflects upon the structural differences between European and North American academic settings and between sociological departments and business schools, considering graduate training and further ascending up the career ladder. He elaborates on his current research, a historical study of credit and credit decision-making in the United States in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but he also works on corporate social responsibility and taxation and the adoption of “business like” characteristics by US museums. Carruthers points out that working at a bunch of intersections between different branches of sociology allows him to be intellectually inclusive in his work. He shares his personal recipe for economic sociology. According to him, a good economic sociologist has to be curious about the economy and willing to do additional work and go beyond his or her sociological training to become knowledgeable in economic phenomena. Taking advantage of communication with colleagues from other fields of knowledge may also contribute to a good practice of conducting an economic sociological study. Speculating about the future of credit relations, Carruthers suggests that dystopian sci-fi TV shows pose some relevant issues to credit scoring. The combination of how widely the information can circulate and what the individual scores are based on provoke governmentality fears about ratings and rankings. As he puts it, the developing Chinese social credit system, which involves almost no privacy in relation to the State, may be nerve-racking if it gets full expression—quite the opposite future Carruthers predicts for the peer-to-peer platforms that promised to challenge the financial market. Once the promotional hype is over, as he points out, big financial institutions will likely take over the successful platforms, and tech platforms could do the business of intermediation may pop up. With respect to promising topics in sociology, Carruthers recommends directing our attention toward the incorporation of big data into research and the expansion of big data analysis skills, as the future of economic sociological research lies therein.</p> Bruce G. Carruthers Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Straw Mills of Russian Sociological Expertise <p>The article corresponds to Nikolai Babich’s detailed remarks about the paper “Criticism of the Survey Approach for Analyzing the Mutual Similarity in the Appearance of Consumer Products Within One Product Category,” published in the Journal of Economic Sociology (2018, vol. 19, no 2, pp. 86–117). The author outlines the basic problems of the current sociological expert evaluation in Russia and proposes options for methodological work aimed at adopting experience from the established contractual procedure for the verification of scientific truth. This article presents some criticism of methods and procedures applied in the field of sociological expert evaluation which turned out to be closed and non-public in Russia. This sociological field has some notable features, including uncritical attitudes toward what and how expert evaluations are produced, uncertainty in the usage of methods, ignorance of international research experience and the non-transparency of methodology and tools. For solving the mentioned problems which the Russian sociological expertise meets, Dmitry Rogozin proposes that sociologists be more active in three directions: 1) conducting a cognitive analysis of survey toolkits embedded in court practice; 2) reconstructing experimental plans with an analysis of applied samplings; and 3) organizing institutional reviews of sociological expert evaluations.</p> Dmitry Rogozin Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Conference at Saint Tikhon’s Orthodox University “Digitalization of Society and the Future of Christianity” <p>The conference “Digitalization of Society and the Future of Christianity” was held at St. Tikhon's Orthodox Humanitarian University. Digital technologies are now rapidly becoming a part of society, exerting an active influence on social processes. Different researchers describe this transformation of social reality in different ways, such as “The Fourth Industrial Revolution” (Klaus Schwab) or “technological singularity” (Ray Kurzweil). However, we must focus not just on the “sum of technologies” but, above all, on how these changes morph our perception of society and how they affect the economy and politics. The development of digitalization has its advantages — for example, an increase in productivity — and risks, such as the reduction of jobs for both workers and highly qualified employees. At the same time, there exists another important question: how can we assess digitalization from a spiritual and moral point of view? How does it affect the individual and suppress his or her freedom? In a recent interview, Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and all Russia noted the danger of gadgets that“provide not just access to personal information but its use.” The danger of using personal data, noted by Patriarch Kirill, is only one aspect of digitalization. Attempts to use biometrics, the development of robotics, 3D printing, augmented reality and several other technologies raise further questions. The conference also touched upon the development of legislative initiatives in relation to the process of digitalization. We discussed the development of draft laws relating to a number of modern digital technologies as well as the creation of a favorable legal environment for our country to gain a competitive advantage in the international digital market. The international conference “Digitalization of Society and the Future of Christianity” will be held annually at St. Tikhon's Orthodox Humanitarian University.</p> Igor Ryazantcev, Vasiliy Pisarevskiy Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Mechanics of Social Exclusion: An Ethnographic Critique of the American Capitalism <p>This book changed the views of the scientific community and ordinary Americans about the urban poor and won the author recognition among the left, closing the door to the camp of neo-liberals and earning him a promotion to an academic position at Harvard University. However, the main effect was that this book and others by S. Venkatesh, written in the style of the new ethnography, raise the degree of public, scientific and political discussion about racial discrimination and what kind of model of American capitalism was acquired by the end of the twentieth century. Showing the close relationship between social exclusion, poverty and crime, Gang Leader for the Day: A Rogue Sociologist Takes to the Streets reveals the hypocrisy of the slogans about equality of opportunity and the perfection of American capitalism. Why does social policy fail in American cities? How exactly does the institutional structure of the capitalist economy and American democracy contribute to the social exclusion of the black population? Why did the mass construction of the ghetto not solve any of the problems that were designated by the initiators of the American project? Asking these and other questions, the author comes to disappointing conclusions. The combination of structural restrictions and cultural experience leads to the fact that ghetto residents develop social relations, follow those behaviors that marginalize their neighborhoods and nullify the chances of success for present and future generations. Formally, this work is difficult to attribute to a scientific monograph. However, researchers of a broad humanitarian profile should pay attention to it. In addition to a rich description of a closed community, the book gives a deep understanding of what constitutes ethnographic and narrative turns in modern-day sociology. This book review begins with a description of the genre’s originality and the differences between the presented book and classical academic studies. Then, we discuss how, due to the rejection of the academic mainstream, S. Venkatesh demonstrates the productivity of innovative ethnography in studies of marginality. To acquaint the Russian audience with the enormous contribution that sociologist S. Venkatesh made to the development of modern Western ethnography, his first and, so far, only book translated into Russian is compared with his earlier monograph. It is carried out in strict accordance with the academic canon and contains a deep analysis of the socioeconomic deprivation of black ghettos within the context of the American model of neoliberal capitalism. The text of this article concludes with a discussion about how Gang Leader for the Day simultaneously reflects an ethnographic and narrative turn that occurred in the social sciences in the final quarter of the last century.</p> Maria Sakaeva Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Participation in Adult Education: Russia in Comparison with OECD Countries <p>The transfer of knowledge and skills is a key social process that supports the functioning of all social institutions, including the economy. Existing research shows that the participation of adults in education throughout their lives has noticeable consequences for wealth, social wellbeing, state of health and cognitive abilities. The learnability of adults provides an additional resource for the economy, which increases its resistance and adaptability during a crisis, allows institutional development and provides an increase of human capital during economic growth. In this paper, we analyze the involvement of adults in education and estimate the effectiveness of adult educational practices in Russia in comparison with OECD countries. The analysis is based on the data of the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC). It is shown that adult learners in Russia demonstrate the same level of measured competences (in reading and math) as those who are not involved in any educational activities. The results are quite different for OECD countries. At the same time, we observe dissimilar models of participation of adults in education in Russia and OECD countries. In the latter countries, there is a “supportive” role of adult education, in which a learner has a strong career, income and social wellbeing, while in Russia a “crisis” model is common for those adults involved in formal education.</p> Natalia Voronina, Dmitry Popov Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Buying Time. The Delayed Crisis of Democratic Capitalism <p>The outstanding German economic sociologist Wolfgang Streeck analyzes sources for recent fiscal, tax and economic crises, considering them as parts of the long-lasting neoliberal transformation of post-war capitalism, which started in the 1970s. Addressing the proposed crisis theories, the author discusses the subsequent contradictions and conflicts between states, governments, voters and capitalistic interests—a process of shifting the main attention from taxation through debt to budget consolidation within the European system of states. At the end of the study, he considers some perspectives on how social economic stability can be achieved again. The Journal of Economic Sociology has published some excerpts from the first chapter, “From Legitimation Crisis to Fiscal Crisis,” in which the author briefly reviews the interconnections between the financial crisis, the crisis of the tax system, and the crisis of growth. The author explains why the stratagem of these interconnections refers to an impossible riddle for any anti-crisis management as well as for politicians. Finally, the author tries to find an answer to the question of why crisis theories of the 1970s, having claimed that a legitimation crisis was coming, turned out to be unprepared to face the social trends which rejected all their predictions.</p> Andrei Vernikov Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Buying Time. The Delayed Crisis of Democratic Capitalism <p style="font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPS;">The outstanding German economic sociologist Wolfgang Streeck analyzes sources for recent fiscal, tax and economic crises, considering them as parts of the long-lasting neoliberal transformation of post-war capitalism, which started in the 1970s. Addressing the proposed crisis theories, the author discusses the subsequent contradictions and conflicts between states, governments, voters and capitalistic interests—a process of shifting the main attention from taxation through debt to budget consolidation within the European system of states. At the end of the study, he considers some perspectives on how social economic stability can be achieved again. </span></span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The Journal of Economic Sociology has published some excerpts from the first chapter, “From Legitimation Crisis to Fiscal Crisis,” in which the author briefly reviews the interconnections between the financial crisis, the crisis of the tax system, and the crisis of growth. The author explains why the stratagem of these interconnections refers to an impossible riddle for any anti-crisis management as well as for politicians. Finally, the author tries to find an answer to the question of why crisis theories of the 1970s, having claimed that a legitimation crisis was coming, turned out to be unprepared to face the social trends which rejected all their predictions. </span></span></p> Wolfgang Streeck Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Realization of Male and Female Achievement Motives in the Labor Markets across the World <p style="font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPS;">The objective of the paper is to reveal сross-country and gender differences in values and the actualization of three achievement motives across the world: namely, high earnings, career growth and interesting work. Achievement motivation contributes to improving the quality of work and thus contributes to both the growth of the welfare of the worker and the economic growth of the country. In previous studies, it was shown that the achievement motives are more widespread among men, and it is easier for men to put these motives into practice. At the same time, it is expected that in countries with high levels of individualism, GDP per capita and gender equality, women would show more interest toward work and thus have more desire to achieve. In our work, we have tested this hypothesis. The International Social Survey Program (2015) serves as a dataset, and the sample includes the employees. Multi-level logistic regression analysis showed that the motives for high income and career growth are more important for men, while the motive of interesting work is of higher significance for women. However, interesting work is more important for women in almost all countries, whereas higher importance of income and career motivation for men is observed only in some countries. At the same time, the motives for high income and a good career are more attractive to men than women, and there was no gender difference in the realization of the motive for interesting work. Contrary </span>to the initial hypothesis, the gender gap, both in the importance of high income and career growth and in the success of their realization turned out to be higher in countries with high levels of individualism, GDP per capita and gender equality than in less wealthy countries with opposite characteristics. Thus, higher rates of individualism, economic well-being and gender equality do not necessarily lead to the like-mindedness of men and women in achievement motives and the equality of their opportunities in the labor market. </span></span></p> Anita Poplavskaya, Natalia Soboleva Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Deaboriginization of Russian Sociological Expertise Industry: Dispute vs. Conquista <p>The article is a rejoinder to Nikolai Babich’s polemical response to our paper “Criticism of the survey approach for analyzing the mutual similarity in the appearance of consumer products within one product category”, published in the Journal of Economic Sociology (2018, vol. 19, no 2, pp. 86–117). Babich named his article “Methodological Reflection in a Pith Helmet” (Journal of Economic Sociology 2019, vol. 20, no 1, pp. 188–196) having thus drawn analogy between scientific criticism and colonial approach that white European colonialists practiced towards the aboriginal population of overseas territories and towards their social institutions. Our replica disputes the validity of using the “Aboriginal” label to the current state of the industry of sociological expertise in Russia as well as the validity of using the complementary term “Colonialist” to designate the colleagues trying to criticize the established research and discursive practices. We also point on the need for more active use of theoretical baggage of classical and modern sociology and sociology of language in the study of visual signs, call for the intensification of scientific dispute based on Mertonian organized skepticism. We develop our criticism in two planes. On the one hand, an attempt is made to deconstruct the colonialist argument as a special case of ad hominem arguments prohibited in the scientific debate. On the other hand, through the prism of these arguments, we once again reconstruct the logic of our approach to the study of similarities and differences in the appearance of FMCG products, based on proven and/or conventional positions of sociological science and sociology of language.</p> Bumagin Roman Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's foreword <div class="page" title="Page 4"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'TimesNewRomanPSMT';">Dear Colleagues, </span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'TimesNewRomanPSMT';">We introduced a new rubric, “Discussions,” some time ago with some doubts regarding the viability of this venture. However, it has gone quite well so far. In this issue, we have begun publishing the authors’ responses to their critics. We received two substantive replies from Roman Bumagin and Dmitry Rogozin on the critical response to their paper. Rostislav Kapelyushnikov has also submitted an extended reply to one of our recently published critical essays on the legacy of Max Weber. This reply will be prepared for the next issue. </span></p> </div> </div> </div> Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Personal Income of Spouses in Russian Families’ Budgets in the 1990–2010s <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The article presents the dynamics of the structure of budgets of Russian households, which differ in the ratio of the contributions of personal incomes and non-individual incomes. Economic relations are considered in matrimonial households in the macroeconomic and social context of the 1990–2010s. Calculations made on the data of the Russian Monitoring of the Economic Situation and Public Health of the National Research University Higher School of Economics (2004–2016) show that during this time the share of “double-income” spousal households increased to 82–83%; the amount of sole financial leadership in the family of both men and women was reduced, but due to the increase in the number of women who combine employment with receiving pensions, the share of families in which women’s incomes are higher than men’s increased. Macroeconomic conditions are reflected in the level of family budgets, and the worst situation was in 1996, which was not defined as crisis in public discourse: only in 45% of families did both spouses have incomes. A similar but less dire situation is observed in 1998: among married couples, 55% had two personal incomes. The declines in real income in 2008–2010 and 2014–2016 are designated as crises, but at the micro level, they had almost no effect on the basis of families with different types of budgets. The presence of only one personal income in the family budget significantly increases the risk of poverty, with the sole financial leadership of men in poor families accounting for 45–50% and with women’s financial leadership at about 70%. The transfer system is poorly insured families in which only a woman contributes to the family budget. </span></span></p> Tatyana Cherkashina Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Methodological Reflection in a Pith Helmet <p>This paper is a polemical response to the article “Criticism of the Interview Approach in Examining the Similarity of the Appearance of Products Belonging to the Same Product Category”, which also appeared in the Journal of Economic Sociology [2018, vol. 19, no 2, pp. 86–117]. In this work, Roman Bumagin and Dmitry Rogozin claim that in trademark similarity research, it is necessary to take into consideration the overall similarity of designs in the same product category. They also criticize the current research practices’ focus on survey methods and call for a fundamental revision of the decision-making process on trademark similarity. While welcoming the attention given to some important subjects (e.g., the need for controls and the background level of similarity), we question the appropriateness of Bumagin and Rogozin’s research procedure and draw attention to the instances of incorrect citations and the distortion of facts in their text. Using specific examples, we show that the arguments proposed in support of the criticism, in fact, illustrate the advantages of current research practices. The procedure actively uses experimental plans and considers the background level of similarity. Our article also asserts, more generally, that to criticize current decision-making in trademarks’ similarity from the perspective of scientism, as Bumagin and Rogozin have done, fails to reflect the specific conditions of arbitration (in a broad sense) authorities. Their goal is not only to establish the truth but also to resolve economic conflicts, and this requires not only a strict but an understandable research procedure. We conclude that hypercriticism in trademark similarity research causes a “colonial” attitude, and it prevents real research practice improvement.</p> Nikolay Babich Copyright (c) Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Cultural Consumption in Sociological Research: A Review of Measurement Approaches <p>This review highlights sociological approaches to the definition and measurement of cultural consumption. Studies regarding this issue are based on the supposition that cultural preferences depend on social position and, therefore, reflect social structure. Nevertheless, despite the long history of cultural consumption research and the existence of numerous studies addressing this topic, the notion is still vague. Several approaches may be found in the literature. Cultural consumption is analyzed as a part of lifestyle that is dependent on class structure. This framework is related to the distinction between highbrow and lowbrow activities and tastes, where each set of choices is only relevant for a particular class. Criticism and further development of this approach is related to the reevaluation of both the structure of cultural consumption and the basis for distinction. More recent studies have addressed not only the symbolic value of cultural products but have also looked at the range of cultural preferences and the intensity of cultural activities. Along with this, papers tackling the modes of cultural consumption are also present. However, existing papers vary in terms of employing these approaches. On the one hand, the definitions are different; studies analyze practices, tastes, or experiences. On the other hand, researchers use different variables and scales to measure cultural consumption.</p> Violetta Korsunova Copyright (c) Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Economic Crisis in the Russian Mass Media: Constructing and Deconstructing Problems <p>This article discusses the process of constructing the image of the economic crisis in Russian online newspapers. The relevance of such analysis is due to the increasing audience attention toward economic discussions in the media during the period of economic instability and, accordingly, the increasing influence of the media on the perception of the situation in the country. This paper is based on a constructionist perspective for understanding the nature of social problems. Counter-rhetorical strategies, suggested by Ibarra and Kitsuse, are adopted to analyze the deproblematization of the economic crisis in the Russian mass media. The goal of the study was achieved by conducting a content analysis, which included the count of mentioned key words and a thematic analysis. Moreover, in order to solve one of the tasks, network analysis was used.<br>The study demonstrates that online newspapers pay the most attention to the coverage of anti-Russian sanctions, inflation, and the ruble rate. Meanwhile, social consequences of the crisis, such as poverty and unemployment, are represented in the Russian media to a much lesser extent. The network analysis also shows that online newspapers are focused on the ruble and dollar rates, sanctions, and loans. According to the network agenda-setting theory, these «links» of economic events in publications can form certain associations among the audience regarding the causes, perpetrators, and consequences of the crisis. Thus, inflation could be caused by the weakening of ruble rate, and sanctions could be one of the causes of the crisis. Strategies of economic crisis de-problematization or counter-rhetorical strategies were found only in mass online newspapers. There were both sympathetic (e.g., declaring impotence, perspectivizing) and unsympathetic (e.g., counter-rhetoric of telling the anecdote, counter-rhetoric of insincerity) strategies.</p> Liudmila Bogomazova Copyright (c) Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Deliberate By-Catch of the Caspian Seal and the Development of Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) in Dagestan, Russia: A Socio-Economic Approach <p>The paper describes how the deliberate by-catch of the Caspian seals in Dagestan, Russia has given to a rise in illegal wildlife trade (IWT) in the region after the sturgeon population, as the most valuable commodity for local markets, critically declined. The data were derived from using a set of anthropological and sociological methods and approaches, including semistructured interviews (SSIs), focus groups, direct observations reflected in field notes, the life-story approach, and “grounded theory”, based on a study of sturgeon poaching conducted by the author since 2012. Although the author subdivided the local IWT into four stages that cover the coastal, piedmont areas, and highlands of Dagestan, in this article, he deepens the readers’ knowledge of the first two stages of IWT in the coastal areas. For a better understanding of the nature of regional IWT, the notion of an autonomous community is introduced. Several examples have been chosen for description: the inclusion of seals resulting from by-catch in new informal contractual relations between young fishers and boat owners, the illegal taking of the fishers sentenced in Kazakhstan, the ransom for the release of fishers sentenced in Kazakhstan (“Kazakh captivity”), the buying of the seals’ carcasses and skins, its initial processing, and the further resale of skins to craftsmen from the mountainous areas of Dagestan. The author argues that the birth of the IWT in the regions is closely linked to the emergence of the local autonomous resource-extracting community, following the breakup of the USSR, where the Sturgeon Fishing Brigade (SFB; the first stage of IWT) and the seals’ middlemen (the second stage of IWT) play the most important roles as social entities. Autonomous community helps the young fishers of the SFB to perceive illegality as an a priori phenomenon, which was facilitated by the long-term absence of the state as the main regulator of social and economic processes. Hence, there is no sense in considering the dichotomy of “legality-illegality” as a research problem when dealing with IWT as a by-product of the autonomous resource extracting community. Results also show that different types of reciprocity and redistribution serve as the main regulatory tools in conducting economic transactions among parties involved in the coastal and highlands IWT structures. The reciprocal ties are partly based on either reputation (in the case of the middlemen) a moral obligations (in the case of the SFB).</p> Ilya Ermolin Copyright (c) Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0300 How Organizations are Talked into Existence: <p>Czarniawska’s book may seem to be quite a challenge for several reasons: the author's trademark “crossing genre boundaries” requires a reader to pay attention and stay confident; the outward simplicity of narrating organizational change stands on sophisticated philosophical, sociological, and philological grounds; and the language is eclectic but brilliantly puts together new empirically grounded and older, well-known theoretical concepts. Czarniawska tells a story of the Swedish public sector’s reorganization with the accuracy of an academic and the eloquence of a narrator—institutions become apparent in their activities, as they are based on action, which is depicted by the coined term action nets. In a sense, the reader should be attentive and “follow the words”. Though imagination is also a precondition, as the light but solid and convincing narrative constructions are open to further “translation” (in a hermeneutic and actor-network sense).<br>Narrative knowledge and its metaphors make it much more productive for work with essential organizational paradoxes. Czarniawska points out that a narrative approach can help new institutionalism reflect on its own limitations and better understand institutional building. With a focus on verbal and written communication as well as employees’ stories, we can trace how institutionalized thought structures, which are responsible for the repertoire of possible actions and shared perceptions among organization participants, are formed.<br>The book is well written and pleasant for thoughtful reading in both its theoretical and empirical parts. The stories and serials of the Swedish public sector raise important questions of company-ization, technologyization, and rethinking organizational identity. “Narrating the Organization” can also offer some interesting methodological approaches and explanations for why and how stories “work” due to the modern trend of storytelling. The author openly invites her audience into a dialogue and joint-narrative creativity; the only task of the reader is merely to open the book.</p> Elena Gudova Copyright (c) Sun, 03 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Platform Capitalism (excerpts) <p>This book discusses the transformation of firms into platforms—companies providing software and hardware products to others—that has occurred in many economic sectors. This massive transformation resulted from switching capitalism into data, considering them as a source for economic growth and resilience. Changes in digital technologies contributed much to the relationships between companies and their workers, clients, and other capitalists, who increasingly began to rely on data. Dr. Nick Srnicek critically reviews “platform capitalism”, putting new forms of the business model into the context of economic history, tracing their evolution from the long downturn of the 1970s to the economic boom of the 1990s and to the consequences of the 2008 financial crisis. The author demonstrates that the global economy was re-divided among a few of the monopolistic platforms and shows how these platforms set up new internal trends for the development of capitalism.<br>The Journal of Economic Sociology further publishes some excerpts from the second chapter, which is named “Platform Capitalism” after the title of the book. This chapter is an attempt to provide clarity to various ongoing discussions in the new world, as it lays out a typology (i.e., cloud platforms, advertising platforms, lean platforms, industrial platforms, and product platforms) and the genesis of platforms.</p> Nick Srnicek Copyright (c) Sat, 02 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0300 A Nietzschean Take on a Hundred-Dollar Bill: Reading Weber’s “Protestant Ethic” in Connection with a Contemporary Economist’s Comments <p>‘Weber’s Hypnosis’ by HSE Professor Rostislav Kapeliushnikov [Kapeliushnikov 2018a: 25–49; Kapeliushnikov 2018b: 12–42] was a point of departure for writing this article. Answering to the examination of Weber’s text by a contemporary economist, the author finds it necessary to discuss the ethical component of “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” in detail. The article draws special attention to the use of the ethical variable there as well as its values: the calling and the humility (also, the ressentiment). The author says that for Weber, it is important to understand where the new type of thinking comes from, the one that concentrates the entirety of life around work (e.g., business, acquisition). The pursuit of acquisition loses the religious and ethical content, but the concept of professional duty remains. According to Weber, this evolution will result in the appearance of the last man—a soulless person locked inside his profession. The author shows that Weber’s interpretation of the Protestant doctrines, where the aim of work is to “get rid of the fear of damnation”, is parallel to the Nietzschean idea of the unpleasant role of “the blessings of work”.<br>In order to answer the critics’ questions, the author discusses the problems of the spirit of capitalism, as it is described in the “Protestant Ethic”. Some of the components of this spirit are described, such as the calling (Beruf), acquisition (Erwerb), and duty (Pflicht). The spirit of capitalism is differentiated from gain, and the connection between the notion of capitalism and that of economic growth is examined; fragments of texts by B. Franklin and D. Defoe, which served as a prototype for Weber for the spirit of capitalism, are analyzed. In the end, the author shares thoughts on how Weber’s logic can be applied to analyzing contemporary reality, what questions it lets one raise, and why the text that, according to Professor R. Kapeliushnikov, is a myth that has no connection to reality, is still read today.</p> Ivan Zabaev Copyright (c) Sat, 02 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Interview with Tatiana Karabchuk. International Comparisons, Social Impacts of Labor Instability, and the Secrets of Academic Happiness <p>Tatiana Karabchuk, Assistant Professor of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences of the United Arab Emirates University, was interviewed by Elena Berdysheva, Senior Research Fellow at the Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology at the National Research University Higher School of Economics, in November 2018. The interview mainly focused on Karabchuk’s research interests and rich work experience at different universities around the world, emphasizing the differences in the academic infrastructures. Dr. Karabchuk highlights the shift toward international comparisons of studies in job stability, subjective well-being and happiness, and fertility and family policies. She claims that societies need to develop an understanding of how social and political institutions should be designed. Developing countries often implement social policies and practices borrowed from more developed ones. In this sense, social sciences can contribute to the process. Dr. Karabchuk also mentions the challenges for the social sciences in the UAE and her experience in launching a regular individual survey for data collection, ‘Monitoring of Emirati Youth’. Research efficiency in academia as well as the development of doctoral education in the UAE were other aspects highlighted in the interview. According to her comments, many universities today provide a productive infrastructure for research, which is a crucial determinant of success. In places where the environment is enriched with material, technical, and communication resources, academics are far more productive. Flexibility in timing and 24-hour office availability for the researchers are the most encouraging factors for productive work.</p> Tatiana Karabchuk Copyright (c) Sat, 02 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Editor's foreword <p>Dear colleagues,</p> <p>As it has been announced, the Journal of Economic Sociology is developing a new rubric, ‘Debates’. Two extended polemic responses are presented in this issue. The first paper presents a critical view of Rostislav Kapelyushnikov’s essay on the legacies of Max Weber. The second paper is a critical response to the text of Roman Bumagin and Dmitry Rogozin on the survey approach.</p> Copyright (c) Thu, 31 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Entrepreneurial Activity of Foreign Labor Migrants in Russia: Оn the Example of Kyrgyz Migrants in Moscow and the Moscow Region <p>В статье рассматриваются особенности предпринимательской активности иностранных трудовых мигрантов в современной России на примере киргизских мигрантов в Москве и Московской области. Логика работы выстраивается вокруг выявления предпринимательских стратегий, формирующихся в результате взаимодействия структуры возможностей российского общества и некоторых групповых характеристик мигрантов. Условно выделены три этапа развития предпринимательства среди киргизских мигрантов: 1990-е — начало 2000-х гг.; первая половина 2000-х — конец 2000-х гг. и 2010-е гг. На основе анализа материалов 26 глубинных интервью с экспертами и предпринимателями родом из Кыргызстана рассмотрен индивидуальный и групповой уровень формирования предпринимательских стратегий. На индивидуальном уровне наиболее важны персональные характеристики, возраст, удовлетворение первичных материальных задач семьи мигранта, миграционный стаж. Намного более значимым ресурсом, чем наличие российского гражданства, особенно на начальном этапе, оказывается знание русского языка. На групповом уровне предпринимательство киргизских мигрантов характеризуются количественным и качественным накоплением индивидуальных и групповых ресурсов, вхождением на рынок через свободную, а главное — доступную нишу, переходом от купли-продажи к производству.</p> Vera Peshkova Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Basic Income as a Prologue to Social Policy of the 21st Century <p>The conference “Basic Income as a Prologue to Social Policy of the 21st Century” took place in the Higher School of Economics. It was devoted to both the theoretical and practical aspects of basic income implementation. The conference was organized by the Institute for Social Policy NRU HSE, the European Dialogue Expert Group, and the German Friedrich Ebert Foundation in Russia. According to the opinion of Evgeny S. Gontmakher, professor of NRU HSE, until now, there were no such large-scale discussions on this topic. The conference was attended by a wide range of participants from the academic and political sphere as well as by public representatives.&nbsp;<br>Basic income is treated not only as a new measure of social support but as a part of new social policy emerging in the context of income disparities; job automation that changes the conditions and the structure of employment; and population aging. Interconnections of basic income with inequality and pension-system adaptation were discussed as well attempts and examples of foreign projects in the field in Switzerland and Finland.<br>The presentations provided the ability to dispel the myths about basic income, evaluate the effects of its implementation, look at it as a tool for solving different social problems, and formulate the questions that should be asked while constructing such measures of social support. The potential of basic income as a system for the Russian population was also discussed. Most conference participants agreed that it is not an issue for the near future, and a lot of questions need to be analyzed first.</p> Elena Nazarbaeva Copyright (c) Mon, 10 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300