Journal of Economic Sociology <p><em>Ekonomicheskaya Sotsiologiya = <strong>Journal of Economic Sociology </strong></em>was established in 2000 as one of the first academic e-journals in Russia. It is funded by the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE; since 2007) and <a href="">Vadim Radaev</a> (Editor-in-Chief).</p> Национальный исследовательский университет «Высшая школа экономики» en-US Journal of Economic Sociology 1726-3247 Can We Explain Differences in Patterns of Alcohol Consumption? Review of Theoretical Approaches <p>Alcohol is an important part of the culture of many people, and the patterns of its consumption differ according to the types of drinks people drink, in what circumstances they drink, what kind of meaning drinking offers them, etc. In this article, we decided to classify publications on differences in drinking patterns based on a dominant idea. We highlight the criteria for identifying such patterns: quantitative (depending on the volume and frequency of consumption) and qualitative (depending on the chosen drinks, circumstances, and motives for use). The quantitative criteria make it possible to identify frequently used patterns, such as episodic alcohol consumption in large quantities, binge drinking, sporadic drinking, and light and heavy drinking. Within the framework of the qualitative criteria, Northern, Southern, and Central European types are often distinguished. The emphasis on consumption motives reveals four patterns: reinforcement, coping, conformity, and community. However, researchers tend to understand what explains the differences in consumption patterns. Therefore, in the second part of the article, we turn to the systematization of such explanations based on cultural-anthropological, historical, and structural approaches. In the last part of our article, we show that the approaches we have identified allow us to explain the features of alcohol consumption patterns in Russia and their changes over the past several decades. It can be concluded that the most productive way of analyzing alcohol consumption is the complex application of the approaches we have considered—the identification of patterns based on various criteria and the explanation of their choice by different highlighted approaches.</p> Valeria Kondratenko Yana Roschina Copyright (c) 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 22 3 129 157 The End of Bureaucracy? New Organizational Forms, Social Media, and Millennials <p class="text">In recent years, Silicon Valley startups have become some of the most successful corporations in the world. They advance the abandonment of bureaucratic control of employees, for example, they do not keep track of what time employees come to work or what they are wearing, and instead delegate decision-making rights to employees and are attentive to their opinions. But what happens behind the closed doors of those companies promoting such openness and the overthrow of the hierarchy and bureaucratic rules? How and by whom are they controlled? The book by Catherine J. Turco (2016) shows how corporate communication, culture, and control actually work in a company run by millennials reared on social media. During her ethnographic research, Turco describes how a new organizational form she calls a “conversational firm” has arisen and succeeded in solving business problems due to cross-hierarchical communication. One of Turko’s main findings is that subverting the hierarchical control of communication does not mean the hierarchical structure of decision making must fall as well. Thus, employees may prefer some bureaucratic practices and insist on them.</p> Daria Asaturyan Copyright (c) 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 22 3 158 169 Effects of Modernization on Social Capital: Evidence from Dagestan <p>The paper scrutinizes the differences between the traditional and modernistic social groups of Dagestan, Russia—a region in the south of Russia that is only now undergoing the process of modernization. As an important factor in economic development in developed countries, social capital and trust often have a negative impact on the level of well-being in traditional communities. The research, based on a sociological survey of residents of the Republic of Dagestan, shows that this pattern is due to the fact that in traditional society, the radius of trust (which is one of the most important components of social capital) extends only to the immediate environment. This is why social capital in such communities produces lower returns. Moreover, using variables associated with the process of breaking traditional norms (residence and birth in the city, modernist religious beliefs, importance of free time, and desire to educate children in self-expression values and foster values of obedience), this article argues that the modernization process leads to the destruction of closed social capital, expressed in the decline of trust in relatives, friends, colleagues, neighbors, and representatives of the same nationality. At the same time, the transformation of traditional norms has a different effect on open social capital—having more modernistic values is positively linked to generalized trust, while being a part of modernistic social groups demonstrates a negative link. The results enable us to conclude that the high level of social capital recorded in other studies in the North Caucasus (and in Dagestan, in particular) is actually associated with a high level of trust in the surrounding environment and is not as productive as in other regions.</p> Daniil Sitkevich Copyright (c) 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 22 3 11 38 Algorithmic Management in the Platform Economy <p>The platform model is the distinguishing organizational form of the early decades of the twenty-first century. Whereas actors in markets contract, hierarchies command, and networks collaborate, platforms co-opt assets, resources, and activities that are not part of the firm. As a distinctive organizational form, the platform model confronts a distinctive managerial challenge: how to manage value-creating activities that are undertaken on the platform but not in the firm? In a triangular geometry, platform owners co-opt the behavior of providers and users, enrolling them in the practices of algorithmic management without managerial authority having been delegated to them. Acting on their own behalf, the ratings and other activities of providers and consumers are algorithmically translated into rankings and other calculating devices that circulate through feedback loops that are twisted rather than circular. Algorithmic management involves a peculiar kind of cybernetic control because at each fold of the feedback loop accountability can be deflected and denied. Whereas Scientific Management in the early twentieth century offered a legitimating principle for the growth of a new managerial class, algorithmic management in the early twenty-first century is reshaping the managerial class. Its power asymmetries at the organizational level are related to coalitions at the regulatory level in which platform owner and investors are in alliance with platform consumers.</p> David Stark Ivana Pais Copyright (c) 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 22 3 71 103 Editor's Foreword <p><span id="page91R_mcid238" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60.2362px; top: 210.021px; font-size: 20px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.785772);">Dear colleagues,</span></span></p> <p><span id="page91R_mcid239" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60.2362px; top: 257.266px; font-size: 20px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.766398);">At present, we are still hoping to escape from the shock of the pandemic in the near future while also expecting </span></span><span id="page91R_mcid240" class="markedContent"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 60.2362px; top: 280.888px; font-size: 20px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.787744);">the possibility of a third wave. Meanwhile, let us turn to a new issue of our journal. </span></span></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 22 3 7 10 The Subjective Perception of Employment Instability: Is It Bad to Be Unstable? <p>Nowadays in the literature, there are two perspectives on the spread of atypical labor contracts and unstable employment trajectories: some authors insist on the vulnerability of modern employees and the weakening of their bargaining position; others emphasize new opportunities for flexibility and independence from the employer. However, it remains unclear how employees react to these new employment conditions. Is instability a benefit or a sign of vulnerability for them? This discussion is most relevant for skilled young workers, as freedom and flexibility are of great value to them. The authors make an attempt to discover which position is closer to unstable workers in Russia. The Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey—Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE) data for 2014–2018 were used for the analysis. The panel data was used to construct the variable of instability in the labor market, taking into account the previous working status of the respondents (the sample size was 1,507 respondents). The main method of analysis was linear regression. The dependent variables were the components of subjective well-being, and the explanatory variable was the status of employment instability. The results show that employment instability is not related to respondents’ subjective well-being, nor to job insecurity. No differences in the subjective assessments of stable and unstable employees with different skills and income levels were found. The findings allow us to state that employment instability is not perceived by Russian employees as a distinct situation in the labor market, or as referring to negative or positive type of work or social position of an individual.</p> Elena Gasiukova Anastasia Petrova Copyright (c) 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 22 3 39 70 Flexible Commuting Patterns by Current Residents of Chelyabinsk <p class="text">Digitization is changing the organization of work. Work is becoming independent of time and place, which affects changes in mobility patterns. This article explores the commuting patterns of current residents of Soviet-designed industrial cities with strictly delineated contours of practice and commuting patterns. Using a case study of the city of Chelyabinsk, this study proposes a typology of residential mobility patterns that varies in relation to employment. For this purpose, Hägerstrand’s theory of the temporal and spatial constraints of mobility was used. By analyzing quantitative data collected in February 2020 through a standardized street survey, three types of commuting patterns were identified: “flexible,” “temporally flexible,” and “regular.” Each type of pattern is described by quantitative characteristics, such as employment sector, form of employment, and place of residence. This study extends the understanding of what commuting patterns in current Russian cities might look like. It demonstrates the dominance of the “temporally flexible” commuting patterns of residents of Chelyabinsk, designed as an industrial center with regular commuting patterns. While the stufy does not provide a certain depth of analysis, it can be taken as a starting point in understanding individual mobility patterns in Russian cities. The results of the study may be of interest to researchers on work and urban mobility, as well as to city planners and policy makers on social and transport issues.</p> Nadezda Krasilnikova Copyright (c) 2021-06-01 2021-06-01 22 3 104 128 Transformation of the Institution of Administrative Complaints in Civilian Uniforms <p class="text">On the basis of the integration of A. Hirschman's “voice-exit” theory and the author's theory of the distribution economy, the universal nature of the institution of complaints as a mechanism for generating new social practices is substantiated, and an analysis of civil complaints is carried out. In restricted access orders, complaints are an attribute of administrative management, while in open access orders, the civil complaints employed are not only received by the authorities but are also presented in public forms. In contrast to the widespread understanding of complaints as a socio-psychological phenomenon, this article reveals the mechanism of their active influence on the formation of the institutional environment throughout its historical development, which explains the revival of this institution as a feedback signal in new digital and communicative forms in the modern Russian economy. To solve this task, we used a methodology of analyzing institutional changes as “a path dependent on the previous development,” which traces the formation and development of the basic institution of complaints at three stages of the evolution of the distribution economy in Russia, as well as the institution’s acquisition of a modern state on the basis of new platforms and authorized public events. As a result, there has been a gradual transition to civil forms of complaints, which include different types of public activity to present unresolved problems. It is established that local protests on socio-economic issues, in fact, are an unformalized part of the institution of complaints and actively influence decision-making in the modern management model.</p> Olga Bessonova Copyright (c) 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 22 3 11 25 Participation in Professional Training and Non-Economic Effects for Workers in Russia <p class="text">The goal of the paper is to identify the relationship between participation in professional training financed by the employer and its non-economic effects: subjective control and job satisfaction (including satisfaction with pay and with professional growth opportunities). According to the human capital theory, participation in professional training accumulates both specific and general human capital; workers develop their skills and become more flexible in the labor market. We test the hypothesis that participation in professional training will be positively interrelated with employees’ subjective control and job satisfaction. The empirical base of the study is formed by the Russian Longitudinal Household Monitoring Survey (RLMS—HSE), waves 19 and 20 (2010 and 2011). The analysis identified positive effects only in the case of subjective control, but not for job satisfaction. This partially supports our hypothesis. The results show that workers who participated in professional training, compared to the workers who did not, will have a higher level of subjective control, i.e., workers feel more in control of their circumstances at work and in life. However, no effect of training was found in the case of job satisfaction. A possible reason is that training is not sufficiently integrated in the short career structures of low- or middle-skill jobs. Therefore, participation in professional training does not widen professional mobility opportunities in this labor market segment and thus is not associated with higher job satisfaction.</p> Natalia Karmaeva Andrey Zakharov Copyright (c) 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 22 3 81 108 What is Wrong with the Concept of Job Readiness in Higher Education? <p>Equipping students with employability skills has become a novel mission of universities since the late 21st century. Discussion on how to make students more job-ready has appeared as a core of the education policy agenda. The roots of the job readiness agenda in higher education (HE) are mostly studied through the lens of changes in the HE sector and are regarded as a result of the massification and vocationalisation of HE. But these explanations only implicitly consider labor market changes that trigger the employability agenda. This paper challenges the job readiness agenda in HE, especially the pressure being put on HE institutions that are expected to fit students to employer’s needs. In order to find the grounds and justification for the employability agenda, I study its cornerstone theses through the lens of labor market theories. The research reveals that not all of these theses are well grounded in labor market theories and empirics. On the one hand, the employability narrative is justified by the decreased signaling function of education credentials and the increasing demand for universal skills and updated technical skills. On the other hand, alarmism concerning skill deficits and shortages that places pressure on HE doesn't fully match theories and empirical evidence. The most relevant concept of employability and job readiness could be elaborated in the framework of universal competencies or 21st-century skills. Being job-ready means being prepared for a flexible career and lifelong learning instead of being fitted to short-term requirements. This conceptual framework establishes a shared responsibility for developing skills and managing skill gaps between individuals, employers and educational institutions.</p> Vera Maltseva Copyright (c) 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 22 3 109 138 Consumption of Cultural Goods in Russia: Scale, Determinants, Differentiation <p>This paper is the first in the Russian economic and sociological literature that provides a general stylized picture of the consumption of cultural goods in Russia using microdata from representative household surveys. The empirical basis of analysis is Rosstat’s Complex Observation of the Living Conditions of the Population for 2011–2018, which so far has been ignored by researchers. Four main kinds of cultural goods are distinguished—cinema, theater, concerts and museums—and the probabilities and intensity of their consumption are assessed. The analysis shows that in Russia at present, about every second adult consumes some cultural goods during the year. Cinema is the most popular good, followed by concerts, theater and museums. A regular audience is approximately one-fifth of the total audience. The primary focus of the paper is on evaluating the contributions of various factors of demand for cultural goods. There is also a detailed discussion of another important behavioral question: to what extent does demand by individuals for any one cultural good stimulate their demand for all other ones? In the econometric part of the paper, two types of models are constructed and evaluated: ordinary logit (for likelihood of consumption) and multinomial logit (for intensity of consumption). The results obtained show that two groups of factors make the highest contributions: on the one hand, economic (such as income), and, on the other, cultural (such as education, occupation and experience with the Internet). In the Russian context there is a visible empirical regularity: the higher the income of individuals, the more active they are culturally. The wealthiest groups go to the movies two and a half times more often, to the theaters seven times more often, to concerts twice as often, and to museums six times more often than the poorest ones.</p> Rostislav Kapeliushnikov Natalia Demina Copyright (c) 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 22 3 42 80 The Exception that Proves the Rule: The Development of Central Banks as an Example of Successful Institutional Reforms in Post-Communist Countries <p>Juliet Johnson is a researcher of politics and finance in the post-Soviet countries and chairperson of the Department of Political Science at McGill University. Her book Priests of Prosperity informs us about the history of the development of central banks in post-communist countries. This story is one of the most interesting episodes of post-Soviet institution building, presenting a rare example of the successful import of an institution birthed in developed democracies. The creation of independent central banks in the early 1990s was accompanied by the introduction of advanced economic approaches that did not exist in these countries. However, this process has completely succeeded, even in those countries where other reforms did not succeed. Johnson recreates this story in an extremely reliable and detailed way. Over a 15-year period, the author conducted more than 160 interviews in 17 countries; she also examined five of them more closely by using a case study and statistics. This investigation contains a large amount of unique empirical material. In addition, it presents the author's own theoretical approach. Johnson's book is not only an example of serious large research, but is also an example of using the institution transplantation model. The book received a number of positive reviews in leading journals on the post-Soviet region as well as prestigious international awards. This review briefly presents the contents of the entire book, containing the opinions of some authors while also discussing in detail certain points of the book that seemed most interesting to the author of this review.</p> Egor Korobkin Copyright (c) 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 22 3 139 147 The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs Private Sector Myths (an excerpt) <p>In the book The Entrepreneurial State, Mariana Mazzucato challenges the widespread idea that the State cannot pick winners, that it is clumsy, bureaucratic and incapable of entrepreneurial risk taking. Her analysis is not just Keynesian; it is also Schumpeterian. The role of the State is not limited to interventions in the macroeconomy as a “market fixer” or as the passive financer of public R &amp; D. The State is also seen as entrepreneur, risk taker and market creator. Mazzucato’s argument goes well beyond the role played by government in countries that have recently forged ahead (Japan in the 1980s or South Korea in the 1990s) to focus on the role played by the public sector agencies of the United States, the wealthiest country in the world and an active promoter of “free markets,” in making risky investments behind the Internet and in funding most of the crucial elements behind the “stars” of the information revolution, companies such as Google and Apple.<br>The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes Chapter 1 of the book, “From Crisis Ideology to the Division of Innovative Labour,” in which the State is presented as an entrepreneurial agent, one taking on the most risky and uncertain investments in the economy. The State does not “derisk” as if it has a “magic wand” that makes risks disappear. It takes on risks, shaping and creating new markets. The author displays the role the State has played in the past, in areas like Silicon Valley, and the role that it can play in the future in areas like the “green revolution.”</p> Mariana MAZZUCATO Copyright (c) 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 22 3 26 41 Transformation of the Institution of Administrative Complaints in Civilian Uniforms <p><span dir="ltr">Dear colleagues,</span></p> <p><span dir="ltr">On the day when this issue of our journal will be published, the students of the HSE University are expected </span><span dir="ltr">to return from distant studies to their classes. We believe that this return is for good despite the obvious fact </span><span dir="ltr">that the pandemic is still with us.</span></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 22 3 7 10 Editor’s Foreword <p>Dear colleagues,</p> <p>This new issue of our journal comes out during these difficult times. The second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic is on its way. It brings new challenges, which are comparable with those of the previous wave. Lockdowns and distant communications are returning. We hope that you and your friends and relatives will survive this time safely.</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 22 3 6 10 ‘Alien Elections’: Neighboring State News on the 2018 Russian Presidential Elections <p>News media tend to reflect voices in the political establishment while covering international events. Is it still true when almost half of the national audience speak the language of the country featured in the coverage? In this paper, we present an analysis of 19.5k news messages collected from Russian-language Ukrainian news outlets covering the 2018 presidential elections in Russia. Using a mixed-method approach (topic modeling and qualitative reading), we identify key topics and stories and evaluate the extent of personalization in the election coverage. We find three central angles: the focus on polls and election results, election preparations in Crimea, and Vladimir Putin’s victory. The elections are linked predominantly to Crimean issues through the date of the elections, each candidate’s stance on the subject, the election management in the region, and other countries’ reactions to the results. Such coverage has an accusatory bias; it stresses the legal status of the Crimean referendum and the Russian authorities’ actions and reports the pressures on locals by authorities, especially the Crimean Tatars. Not linked directly to Crimea, other angles are less emotionally charged. Political personalization of the discussion has a contradictory nature. On one hand, the overwhelming majority of the messages mention public figures. On the other hand, the coverage of the figures is limited and omits their traits. Moreover, at times, public figures are replaced by non-personalized symbols (e.g., Kremlin, Russian invaders). However, if the former’s coverage is predominantly neutral, the latter’s coverage is more prone to negative and loaded statements.</p> Anastasia Kazun Anastasia Kazun Пашахин Pashakhin Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 22 3 71 91 Cultural Professions in Modern-Day Russia: Statistical Portrait of the Workers <p>In this study, we aim to provide a statistical portrait of employment in the cultural field with regard to occupations on the Russian labor market. The data from the ‘Comprehensive Monitoring of Living Conditions’ are used to illustrate the main differences in the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of culturally employed respondents and other professional groups. Additionally, the most relevant factors that may have an impact on individuals’ probability to be cultural workers are analyzed. Our study is based on the theoretical frameworks of U. Beck, R. Florida, J. Urry, and Z. Bauman. We also consider the possible Soviet legacy of the contemporary Russian culture, which may interconnect with labor conditions in this field, using S. Fitzpatrick’s works. We also provide an overview of other relevant studies. Our findings show that a larger number of cultural workers among the respondents are librarians, archivists, teachers of music and art schools, linguists, museum workers, journalists, and writers. The results on the statistical portrait display that on average, the cultural workers are highly educated married women in their forties or older who live predominantly in the largest regions of the Russian Federation (Moscow and Moscow region, St. Petersburg). Almost three-quarters of the group have relevant education. They are mostly regular full-time employees with a daytime work schedule. We have also found that the most influential factors for becoming cultural workers are the region of residence and relevant professional education.</p> Evgenya Polyakova Mikhail Manokin Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 22 3 35 60 School Socio-economic Composition as a Factor of Educational Inequality <p>The socioeconomic composition of schools is considered one of the most significant factors of educational inequality at the school level. Most of the reviewed works demonstrate a positive relation between the student population’s socioeconomic status and educational outcomes. At the same time, a number of authors confirm that this effect is a statistical artifact and is significant due to the limitations of existing studies’ methodology. Despite a fairly large number of works, a few questions remain: How is the composition effect formed? Under what conditions does it occur? What mechanisms involve interconnection? How can the negative effect of school composition be minimized? Is it about causality? In Russian studies, this subject area is out of sight. In this article, the author aims to provide a systematic analysis of relevant works with a focus on developing recommendations and further directions for empirical research. In this review, the author introduces the term socioeconomic composition and describes the main approaches for measuring it, taking into account the choice of the composition indicator, aggregation method, and data analysis method. Following assumptions about the presence of an indirect effect of composition and methodological recommendations, the possible mechanisms of the effect at the peer, teacher, and school levels are described. Based on the analysis of critical works, the prerequisites for research design are formed. The author concludes the paper with a summary of the recommendations and substantiates the scientific and practical importance of studying the causal relation between the school composition and educational results.</p> Yuliya Kersha Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 22 3 92 123 A Loosening Grip: Why Do Autocracies Engage in the Neoliberalization of Their Welfare Sectors? <p>Despite the wealth of studies on neoliberalism, research on why authoritarian states engage in processes of neoliberalization remains scarce. Therefore, our article seeks to explore why autocracies use neoliberal power practices, which, as suggested by Foucauldian governmentality approach to neoliberalism, are understood as governance techniques aimed primarily at disciplining and controlling populations through promoting the free market as a key form of societal organization. Empirically, these power practices can manifest in a state’s withdrawal from the provision of welfare services. However, scholars have argued that control over the public sector is essential to the maintenance of authoritarian regimes, and hence, governments must have compelling reasons to opt for its neoliberalization. In this study, we employ three mutually nonexclusive theoretical perspectives that suggest incentives that may motivate autocrats to retreat from the welfare sector; these are the authoritarian legitimation, authoritarian modernization, and political economy perspectives. By means of a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, we tested the foregoing theories on a sample of 42 autocracies active during 1980–2005. The results revealed that authoritarian modernization theory has the highest explanatory capacity, as it identifies two distinct pathways to public sector neoliberalization—internal and external policy considerations or one of the two—while the political economy perspective was an important theoretical concern in several cases. Overall, our paper contributes to research on the governmentality approach to neoliberalism and serves as a departure point for further investigations into neoliberal authoritarianism.</p> Ilia Viatkin Kristina Komarova Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 22 3 140 164 Психологические причины коррупции: роль тревоги <p>This study is devoted to answering two questions: (1) Do individuals’ worries and sufferings correlate with the acceptability of corruption from their perspectives? (2) Does this correlation differ by country in terms of corruption levels? We focus on analyzing the correlation between macro and micro worries, on one hand, and individual acceptability of corrupt behavior, on the other hand. This study is based on the data from the 6th-wave World Value Survey. We identified three groups of countries based on the corruption perception index: countries with low-level corruption (Australia, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Singapore, and Sweden), countries with medium-level corruption (Belarus, China, South Korea, Malaysia, and Romania), and countries with high-level corruption (Russia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Thailand). For the purposes of our analysis, we used structural equation modeling. We have found that macro and micro worries are significantly correlated with the acceptability of corruption. Our analysis shows that the more the people worry about themselves or their families, the more they accept corruption. The people who worry about society are more likely to disapprove of corruption. However, the significance of these links varies, depending on the group of countries. For the countries with low-level corruption, the correlation is significant only for the link between micro worries and the acceptability of corruption. The countries with high-level corruption show a significant correlation only for the link between macro worries and the acceptability of corruption. For countries with medium-level corruption and for Russia, the acceptability of corruption is significantly correlated with both micro and macro worries.</p> Anna Mironova Alexander Tatarko Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 22 3 11 34 Capitalism without Capital: The Rise of the Intangible Economy (an excerpt) <p>Capitalism without Capital by Jonathan Haskel and Stian Westlake explores the changes in the types of investments that have occurred in almost all developed countries over the last forty years. If tangible investments predominated in the past, most investments are intangible at present, meaning that money is spent on buying and creating knowledgebased products, including computer software, research and development, design, works of art, market research, learning, and new business processes. The authors attempt to answer why the economy in which intangible assets are intensively used is so different from the economy where tangible assets dominate. The authors conclude that these changes are explained by the basic properties of the intangible assets and have resulted in long-lasting stagnation, lower economic growth, increasing inequality, and difficulties in public policies for economic and financial sectors. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the introductory chapter, ‘Valuation, the Old-Fashioned Ways: Or a Thousand Years in Essex’ from Capitalism without Capital, where the authors discuss the meaning of investments, define the distinctions between tangible and intangible assets, and explain why some basic properties of intangible assets generate such dramatic changes in the contemporary economy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jonathan Haskel Stian Westlake Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 22 3 61 70 Create not to Commercialize: On the Everyday Practices of Russian Technopreneurs <p>What is the reason for the low commercialization of high-tech innovations in Russia? Given the Russian engineers’ high scores on initiative, creativity, and technical competence, why is there no successful launch of manufactured—often amazing—inventions on domestic and international markets? Does Russia have a specific way of development in the sphere of high technologies? The research team of sociologists from the European University at St. Petersburg (EUSP)—Olga Bychkova, Boris Gladarev, Oleg Harkhordin, and Zhanna Tsinman—offer answers to these questions in their book, Sci-Fi Worlds of Russian Hi-Tech. Based on a large set of in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs from Russia, as well as Finland, Taiwan, and South Korea, the authors’ focus is not on institutions but on the technopreneurs themselves, who update the hightech markets on their daily practices, ways of social interaction, worldviews, interactions with developers, technical prototypes, and themselves. Employing the concepts from the theory of practice and science and technology studies (STS), the authors have attempted to re-examine the life worlds of Russian technopreneurs and to align their individual narratives with the sociocultural context in which the daily life of developers is embedded. The researchers show the way that engineers live, in which value categories make sense of their work and daily practices, and how it may determine the technological development of the Russian economy and the whole society at the macro level. The book is filled with detailed and thorough descriptions of methodology and fieldwork, rich and illustrative quotations from the narratives of innovators, and the justification for the theoretical framework of the study. It is addressed to a wide readership and will be useful for sociologists, including those interested in research on science and technology, and for the general public who strives to open up the daily life of those whose works try to “crack the laws of the universe.”</p> Daria Lebedeva Copyright (c) 2021-02-01 2021-02-01 22 3 124 139 Why do the Rich Consume More Discreetly? A Theory of the Aspirational Class <p>This paper is a review of The Sum of Small Things: A Theory of the Aspira-tional Class, written by Elizabeth Currid-Halkett and published in 2017. Prof. Currid-Halkett leads the Public Policy Department at the University of Southern California. Her research interests tend to focus on the arts, culture, the consumer economy, and the role of culture in geographic and class divides. Her main idea, portrayed through this book, is that, at the beginning of the 21st century, conspicuous consumption becomes more democratic. In other words, due to the mass-production economy, luxury goods have become significantly more accessible. The abundance of leisure no longer indicates a higher status. As a result, the leisure class is substituted by the aspirational class, whose members reveal their position through cultural signifiers and value systems. The objective of this book is to accurately analyse the portrait of this aspirational class, which transmits completely different consumer behaviour when compared to Veblen’s leisure class. The book combines both quantitative and qualitative research de-signs. Elizabeth Currid-Halkett examines the nationally representative Consumer Expenditure Survey from 1996 to 2014 (covering 35 000 American households per year). In addition, she draws on 15 interviews to explore Americans’ con-sumer practices in greater depth.&nbsp;This review seeks to emphasize the importance of the author’s conclusions re-garding studies of consumer behaviour, social stratification, and social class the-ories. The first part of the paper covers the scientific background of the book and its methodological framework. The second part describes its theoretical frame along with statistical evidence and findings. The paper concludes by highlighting key limitations of the study and suggesting further research directions.</p> Irina Kolegova Copyright (c) 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 22 3 168 176 Access to Modern Medical Technologies in Russia and Europe <p>The authors discuss the results of a comparative analysis of the access to medical technologies in Russia and the countries of the European Union. The study included the most popular diagnostic technologies: computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). The key indicators of access to this kind of equipment are its distribution—the number of units per share of the population—and the frequency of use of existing installations by patients. The research information base consisted of Russian and European statistics for the period from the 1980s to the present.</p> <p>A comparative analysis of the accessibility of the technologies under consideration in Russia and European countries based on these indicators allowed us to come to the following conclusions.A review of the literature confirms that the development of public health in the modern era is largely determined by the introduction and widespread use of new medical technologies. Among them, the important role of diagnostic technologies play a part in the article, but access to these diagnostic procedures remains limited in many countries. As a comparative analysis of European countries shows, Russia is significantly inferior to almost all EU countries in the level of accessibility of these procedures due to the insufficient number of CT, MRI, and PET scanners and the low rates of their use. The technological lag in Russian health care is associated with low levels of state funding for the sector given that, in the state’s policy, social spending is less important than other areas of budget financing. Limited access to modern diagnostic tools prevents the rapid and high-quality determination of the causes of many diseases and, consequently, their successful treatment. In addition, a significant shortage of modern technological equipment can aggravate the problem of social inequalities in health, which is clearly manifested in Russian society. Thus, well-off people with the ability to spend significant funds on receiving modern medical services will benefit, while people with low incomes will be forced to be content with less-effective procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Lyudmila Panova Anastasia Panova Copyright (c) 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 22 3 58 93 Conceptualizing Job Satisfaction and Its Determinants: A Systematic Literature Review <p>Job satisfaction is considered an important aspect of employee behavior. This article focuses on a critical analysis of the accompanying literature to determine the various factors that shape job satisfaction and to gauge their relative signifi-cance in conditioning employee behavior. The conceptualizations of job satisfac-tion in the existing literature are multitudinous, reflecting the breadth of critical perspectives on the subject. A systematic literature review, therefore, consisted of: (a) isolating databases and a set of publications; (b) selecting publications and developing a database; and (c) conducting bibliometric analysis, content analy-sis, and testing the relevance of results to further research. The review included publications from the years 2000–2018 and covered psychology, sociology, eco-nomics, and management science. Analysis of previous theoretical publications and empirical studies reveals that they are not without their cognitive and meth-odological limitations. Even at the level of definition, despite numerous criti-cal attempts to clarify exactly what constitutes job satisfaction, an unambiguous and clear-cut conception has yet to surface. Equally, critical consensus is lack-ing among researchers over what contributes to job satisfaction, and divergent research approaches have been adopted as a result. Indeed, despite the rising popularity of job satisfaction studies, some of these factors have yet to be ex-plored fully, while some research has yielded contradictory results regarding the strength of the influence of certain factors on job satisfaction. This paper fills this gap and, through a systematic analysis of the literature, indicates the direction in which current research is headed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Joanna Wyrwa Jerzy Kaźmierczyk Copyright (c) 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 22 3 138 167 Is Industrial Agriculture Sustainable During Climate Change and Ecological Threats? <p>Russia has experienced food revolutions in production, distribution, and consumption since 2000. These revolutions have transformed the food system, but systemic changes are not complete — a sustainable agricultural system is not likely in Russia anytime soon; the effects of climate change are likely to worsen and force further revolutionary change to Russia’s food system, which in the short-term could cause food insecurity. The state retains its key role in regulating the food system, primarily due to considering food security a factor of national security, has been achieved. The Russian statist discourse on food security, which has intensified under the Western sanctions and pandemic restrictions, ignores the challenges that the global agro-industrial sector faces at the same time being the source of anthropogenic changes. Moreover, this discourse rarely takes into account environmental challenges for the Russian agro-industrial sector. The article shows the relationship between climate/ecological changes and the dominant industrial agriculture not in the form of alarmist statements, but by describing the social-economic-ecological context, in which the research questions about current and future restrictions and consequences of industrial agriculture should be asked. The article presents examples of sustainable agriculture in Russia, identifies obstacles to moving away from industrial agriculture, and considers possible scenarios for the transition to sustainable agriculture.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Stephen Wegren Irina Trotsuk Copyright (c) 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 22 3 12 38 XXII April International conference on the development of the economy and society, Higher School of Economics, April 13–23, 2021 <p>XXII Апрельская международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества, проводимая Национальным исследовательским университетом «Высшая школа экономики», состоится 13−23 апреля 2021 г. Председатель Программного комитета АМНК — научный руководитель НИУ ВШЭ профессор Е. Г. Ясин.</p> <p><br>Конференция посвящена широкому кругу актуальных проблем экономического и социального развития страны. Основную часть выступлений на АМНК составляют научные доклады российских и зарубежных учёных. Важной частью программы конференции являются специальные мероприятия, которые проводятся в формате пленарных заседаний и круглых столов с участием членов Правительства Российской Федерации, государственных деятелей, представителей бизнеса, российских и зарубежных экспертов.</p> <p><br>В сложившихся эпидемиологических условиях XXI Апрельская конференция прошла в распределённом формате, что означало совмещение различных форм проведения и более длительные сроки проведения. Приём заявок на XXII АМНК был открыт 21 сентября 2020 г. Планируется, что конференция пройдёт 13−23 апреля 2021 г. в смешанном формате и объединит как онлайн-, так и офлайн-мероприятия.</p> . . Copyright (c) 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 22 3 110 111 Editor's Foreword <p>Dear colleagues, this new issue of our journal is published during difficult times. The second wave of the covid-19 pandemic is here, and it brings new challenges comparable to those encountered during the previous wave. Lockdowns and communicating from a distance are back. We sincerely hope that you and your friends and relatives will remain safe during this time.</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 22 3 7 11 The Value of Everything. Making and Taking in the Global Economy (an excerpt) <p>According Prof. Mazzucato, to understand economic growth it is necessary to return to issues relating to what wealth means and where value comes from. The aim of this book is to reinvigorate the debate on value, which traditionally was—and should still be—at the core of economic thinking. Prof. Mazzucato points to the fact that in economics, various types of economic activities related to value extraction (or even value destruction) are camouflaged as or pretend to represent value creation. This results in a huge increase in social inequality and a significant decrease in investments in the real economy. Understanding the negative consequences of value extraction requires clarification of what is really taken. Which social, economic, and organizational conditions are necessary for value production? The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes “Introduction: Making versus Taking,” where Prof. Mazzucato makes distinctions between value making and value extraction (e.g. tax evasions, share buy-backs, etc.). It also defines “value creation” as the ways in which different types of resources are established and interact to produce new goods and services. Finally, the introduction provides details of how the book is structured.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Мариана Маццукато Copyright (c) 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 22 3 39 57 “Difficult Money”: The Question for the Next Revision of the Nature of Money <p>This book, edited by N. Bandelj, F. Wherry, and V. Zelizer, comprises a series of articles united in a collective monograph; it opens the reader to a multilateral view of the nature of money as a system of meanings and signs, and clarifies the mechanisms of the formation and functioning of financial flows and institutions. Trends associated with the active dissemination of new forms of money that are not tied to a specific financial system, as well as the expanding practice of the consumption of goods and services related to issues of morality and ethics, are becoming relevant. The authors were tasked with revising the conceptual framework for the study of money, and the main goal was to show the principles of the functioning of money in the financial system and, to a greater extent, in the system of social relations. In the book, the conceptual framework is examined in five sections, each of which provides sociological, cultural, anthropological, and historical perspectives. The authors of 14 chapters illustrate the connection of their theses with the approach of Viviana Zelizer, as outlined in a number of her famous works, and the analysis of money itself is based on the subject of the fungibility of mediums, functions, and meanings (earmarking) of monetary units, the understanding of financial accounting by people themselves (mental accounting), and the influence of the state on this process. This review aims to define the logic of the presentation of the material in the book in order to better understand the theoretical and empirical principles set forth in the chapters.</p> Stanislav Pashkov Copyright (c) 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 22 3 94 103 The Phenomenon of Downshifting in Central and Eastern European Countries: Case Studies from Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia <p>The article introduces discussions of sociocultural post-material practices that are connected with downshifting and with efforts to thrive in the shadow of dominating forms in contemporary societies. The author extends her conceptual framework beyond ecology, sociology, and the politics of sustainable lifestyles and draws from Anthony Giddens’s “reflexive project of the self.” The introduced notion of “experiencing downshift” is understood as the reflexiveexperience by those individuals, who reshape their lives to reflect its “authentic” meaning, which is connected to the resignation from high material living standards. The article offers the concept of identity as central rather than peripheral to downshifting research.<br>Following a longitudinal panel study on the processes of far-reaching and radical changes in the lifestyles of 31 downshifters, five areas were examined: motives for the change, the character of the change, reactions of others, balance of benefits and losses, and decision consistency. Findings suggest that the contested meaning of (material) life success leads to the reframing of value priorities and the reconstruction of personal and social identities. Ideals of downshift move away from productive efforts and consumption-based identities toward practices of being reflective, self-aware, and fostering well-being, which is variously characterized by harmony, pleasure, and creativity. Most of them are not unique to downshifting, but this is not (as I have emphasized) a limitation but simply a chance for the movement to get out of the frame of a politicized, radicalized critique of capitalist growth society and make consumers appreciate that what they already do could be potentially supportive of downshift transformation.</p> Aneta Duda Copyright (c) 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 22 3 112 137 Homo Sapiens Socialis <p>Homo sapiens is the greatest mystery of science. The main property of this biological species is the mind, but what are the laws of consciousness and how does ignorance of these laws hinder the development of ideas about various spheres of functioning of society? These and other relevant issues of cognitive science are tackled in the book Minds Make Societies: How Cognition Explains the World Humans Create by Pascal Boyer, a professor at the University of Washington. This work is reviewed so that potential readers can understand how convincing the author is in solving the tasks he sets—the problems of a new science, the foundations of which he intends to lay. The French-American evolutionary psychologist poses six questions: What is the basis of intergroup conflicts? Why do we need information? Why do religions exist? What is natural family? How can society be fair? Can our minds comprehend society? In answering these questions, Boyer uses a variety of facts from various disciplines of natural science and humanities. The scholar seeks to show and refute the prejudices of many prevailing concepts, for example, the traditional opposition between nature and culture, which has dominated for several centuries. The anthropologist provides a lot of fascinating data, including from personal field experience, and does so using simple language. However, in the end, most hypotheses are explained by human evolution and the need for groups to simultaneously consolidate within themselves and resist other communities. The book could be useful to anyone interested in anthropology and the structure of society, as well as laws of thought.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Alexander Subbotin Copyright (c) 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 22 3 139 149 Types of Financial Disagreements in Families: Qualitative Evidence from Russia <p>Financial disagreements have been previously identified in the literature as the main predictor of divorce in families as well as the most difficult and prolonged type of disagreement among spouses. However, the topic of financial conflicts between spouses remains undertheorized and has been insufficiently studied empirically in Russia. This study attempts to fill this gap in answering the question of how financial disagreements in families can be classified. To resolve this research problem, 35 Russian married or cohabiting couples were interviewed. In-depth interviews were conducted with each of the partners separately to determine their positions and compare their views within the couple. The results show that financial disagreements are normalized phenomena in the life course of Russian couples. However, the issue seems to be very sensitive, and the qualitative methodology allowed for the detection that partners may feel embarrassed and stressed while discussing the reasons for financial conflicts. Nevertheless, five types of financial disagreements were identified based on their underlying reasons: price conflicts, conflicts about necessity, conflicts of goals, conflicts due to a lack of planning, and conflicts of values. The last type seems to be one of the most difficult and unpleasant types of family conflicts, as it shows that partners hold different and often incompatible positions regarding the family’s finances. This result highlights the importance of using a relational sociology approach while studying marital financial disagreements. Also, the identified typology can serve as a guide for studying financial conflicts in families more deeply and for family therapy and divorce prevention.</p> Polina Zhidkova Copyright (c) 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 22 3 162 181 How Different are the Models of Administrative Adjudication Across the Russian Regions? On the Example of Antitrust Cases <p>The Russian practice of implementing the decisions of administrative authorities, including challenging them in the judicial system, provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of institutional changes on the effectiveness of legal norms. This article is aimed at describing the main features of the Russian system of contesting the decisions of administrative authorities (in this case, we consider cases of contesting indictments of an antimonopoly body); it also considers key parameters that are characteristic of Russia as a country in a transitional stage of institutional development. The analysis is based on data obtained from the Arbitration Card File of the Federal Arbitration Courts of the Russian Federation on decisions of the Russian arbitration courts of first instance with respect to contesting the decisions of the antimonopoly body on all types of charges for the period 2012–2018. For the indicated period, a sample of 14,790 decisions of arbitration courts of the first instance was formed, which covered different subjects of the Russian Federation. The considered statistics of contesting antitrust decisions of arbitration courts of the first instance demonstrate a high level of differentiation of the institution of judicial regulation regarding disputes arising from the relationship between the antimonopoly body and companies. Subsequently, such features become some of the essential parameters that determine the differences in the processes of law enforcement and the quality of the institutional environment. At the same time, significant differences in the levels of judges' workload relative to average values make it possible to determine both the insufficient and excessive composition of judges, both in general for the courts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, and for groups of judges considering disputes arising from administrative legal relations.</p> Elena Sidorova Copyright (c) 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 22 3 30 69 Arhythmic Tempo: Dynamics of Readiness to Join the Collective Actions in Russia (1996–2019) <p>The propensity of the public to protest is a dynamic process, the direction of which determines the level of political stability. Aggregate indicators of the readiness to act collectively against declining standards of life can be used as a thermostat that indicates the level of economic grievances in society. What explains these dynamics? Do incremental changes in objective economic indicators such as inflation or unemployment matter the most, or is it the subjective evaluation of the situation in the country that drives protest attitudes? In this paper, I argue that two mechanisms link inflation and unemployment to the readiness to join economic protests: first, high levels of both indicators increase the gap between actual and desired consumption levels; second, high levels of inflation and unemployment signal the lack of governmental competence. I also argue that the subjective evaluation of the direction of the country has an independent effect on the aggregate level of readiness to join the collective actions with economic demands. Statistical analysis based on the autoregressive model with distributed lag (ADL) confirms the hypothesis of the consumer price index and unemployment’s lagged impact on the readiness to protest, while public optimism exhibits both short- and long-term effects on the protest mood. The analysis also reveals the high level of persistence in the dynamics of protest attitudes. The study contributes to the discussion on the determinants of the mobilization and significance of objective and subjective economic grievances.</p> Andrey Semenov Copyright (c) 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 22 3 107 124 International Workshop “The Varieties of Power in the Economy,” Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, NRU HSE, Moscow, Russia, July 2–3, 2020 <p>The international workshop ‘The Varieties of Power in the Economy’ was held from July 3 to 4, 2020 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar was organized by the Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology (LSES) at the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow. The seminar primarily aimed to initiate a discussion on power practices, modes of influence, compliance, and governance structures in the economy. The keynote speakers of the workshop were Alena Ledeneva, Professor of Politics and Society at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (University College London, UK) and Valery Yackubovich, Professor at the Management Department (SSEC Business School, France). In their lectures they shared their understanding of the topics and how they can be incorporated in various conceptual frameworks within economic sociology. Apart from LSES, the seminar engaged researchers from various research institutions, backgrounds, and traditions. Invited speakers included Elena Bogdanova (University of Gothenburg), Tamara Kusimova (Central European University), Aleksei Pobedonostsev (The European University Institute in Florence), Olga Sidenko (Voronezh State University), Daria Shcheglova (HSE University—Institute of Education), Maria Tysiachniouk (University of Wisconsin-Madison), Ulla Paper, Stanislav Klimovich, and Katharina Bluhm (Freie Universität Berlin), and Maya Shmidt (Uppsala University). The researchers took a closer look at their academic fields and identified the issues of power practices, forms of influence, and control in economic exchange. By examining completely different social spheres and institutional fields, the participants discussed the ambivalence of power and the variety of power relations and practices in the economy.</p> Daria Lebedeva Copyright (c) 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 22 3 150 161 Editor's Foreword <p>Dear colleagues, the very first issue of the Journal of Economic Sociology came out in September 2000, exactly twenty years ago. It was one of the pioneers among the academic e-journals in Russia at the time, when the very notion of ‘electronic journal’ was not widely recognized. We contributed to a new standard, which became quite common many years later</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 22 3 7 9 Testing and Being Tested in Pandemic Times <p>The coronavirus pandemic is witness to a great proliferation of two types of tests. The first type is testing —– new medical diagnostic tests as well as epidemiological models that simulate and project the course of the virus. In the second type, actors, organizations, and institutions are being tested in this moment of social and political crisis. This essay analyzes the similarities and differences between these two major types of tests in order to understand their entanglements in the crisis. In the process, we find a great diversity of tests operating in multiple registers, themselves not clearly demarcated, often combining and sometimes conflating, for example, scientific and public discourse. The study opens by identifying three aspects of testing, drawn from the sociology of testing. First, tests are frequently proxies (or projections) that stand for something. Second, a test is a critical moment that stands out – whether because it is a moment deliberately separated out or because it is a puzzling or troublesome “situation” that disrupts the flow of social life. Third, when someone or something is put to the test, of interest is whether it stands up to the challenge. These insights serve as the building blocks for addressing three major issues – representation, selection, and accountability – regarding testing in the time of the coronavirus crisis. In this moment we see a new model of testing: from statistical calculation of risk in a population to algorithmic prediction about the riskiness of particular persons.</p> David Stark Copyright (c) 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 22 3 70 106 How Different are the Models of Administrative Adjudication Across the Russian Regions? On the Example of Antitrust Cases <p>The paper describes an experiment aimed at creating a categorical and interactive stratification schema for the population a major Russian city (St. Petersburg). We used the data on friendship ties of 3200 adults to create a network of ties among occupations. We then used the Louvaine community detection algorithm to identify six clusters. The clusterization obtained distinguished between skilled manual, routine non-manual and professional occupations demonstrating that close social ties are more likely to be found within, rather than between, their boundaries. However, in contrast to Goldthorpe’s class schema, the algorithm also identified cleavages between sectors of professional occupations (pedagogical/ artistic, clerical, etc.) The boundaries between such groups of occupations are reproduced inter-generationally even in the absence of considerable economic inequality between them. We demonstrate that clusters of occupations differ in their lifestyles and consumption patterns (e.g. consumption of highbrow culture) even controlling for age, gender, and education. We interpret the clusterization as evidence of the existence of milieus confined within institutional barriers of social sectors. Such milieus, rather than classes, serve as the building blocks of social structure defined through intensity of interaction or lifestyles.</p> Mikhail Sokolov Nadezhda Sokolova Copyright (c) 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 22 3 12 29 Sticky Economy’s Social Consequences <p>The book Good Economics for Hard Times: Better Answers to Our Biggest Problems is the answer of the 2019 Nobel laureates in Economics Abhijit Banerjee and Esther Duflo to the fundamental challenges of modernity. Its pages are devoted to the questions: why do economists and other social researchers offer ineffective responses to global challenges? What are the dangers of stereotypical thinking and outdated economic schemes and theories? Why can't we rely only on the scientist's intuition? What is the power of painstaking social research based on experimental methods and careful processing of facts? Why are there no universal recipes for economic growth? Why is each national variant of socioeconomic development unique? What role do traditions and values play in these options? Why does the growth of income inequality turn into a polarization of ideologies and political positions, leading to an increase in intolerance, racism, tribalization, and so on? How do ideological approaches and populism become a distorting lens of reality? Why do the anger and despair associated with personal injuries and failures turn into anti-immigrant rhetoric and wallbuilding? Why does the idea of a universal basic income not find empirical support and what can replace it? All readers and researchers who are interested in these issues will be introduced to a large-scale, thorough study based on the generalization and analysis of a wide range of social surveys and other studies with the widest regional coverage. The authors strive to dispense with the prevailing stereotypes in science, relying only on facts and their experimental confirmation. The book is written in a very lucid literary style, with a certain amount of humor.</p> Наталия Мещерякова Copyright (c) 2020-10-01 2020-10-01 22 3 125 138 Constitutional Review and Dissenting Opinions in Nondemocracies: An Empirical Analysis of the Russian Constitutional Court, 1998–2018 <p class="text">Whereas constitutional courts are associated with democracy and the rule of law, today, they these courts exist in nondemocracies, where they face direct threats to their existence or backlash from domestic actors. For a court to survive, it has to constantly strike a balance between performing the functions imposed by the ruler and trying not to lose its legitimacy. What is the role of constitutional courts in nondemocracies? When do they rule against the government, and when do they side with it? To what extent can regional governments, citizens, or political activists succeed in challenging the state? Given the higher risks judges in nondemocracies face, when do they author dissenting opinions? To answer these questions, I use a novel dataset on all final judgments issued by the Russian Constitutional Court (RCC) between 1998 and 2018 (N = 502). Using a regression analysis, I show how the outcomes of cases depend on who petitions the court and about what. First, the results show that the political regime and institutional settings matter—applications about the government’s structure have the lowest probabilities of being nullified but have higher probabilities of carrying a dissenting opinion. Additionally, judges dissent more when cases are brought by highlevel political actors, such as the president, federal parliament, and government. Second, social rights are an area of consensus among judges—the court is more likely to strike down laws that violate social rights, including social welfare and cases on antidiscrimination, and judges are less likely to dissent in such cases. When higher courts in nondemocracies exist—and as long as they benefit the ruler or ruling party—they tend to (1) avoid confrontation with the ruler and (2) shift their focus toward “safer” areas, which, in the Russian case, became advancing and protecting social rights.&lt;\p&gt;</p> Yulia Khalikova Copyright (c) 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 22 3 129 150 Context in Leisure: The Neglected Side <p class="text">Studies of leisure stand apart at the intersection of sociology, economics, anthropology, and psychology, as they tend to focus on subjective experience. Ten years ago, Robert Stebbins, a research veteran in this discipline, emphasized all sorts of contexts and external factors that cannot be omitted and should be taken into account when doing such research. Over 30 years of studying this phenomenon, Stebbins managed to build his own theory, the “Serious Leisure Perspective,” and addressed boredom and choice as components of leisure. In Leisure Activities in Context, he further develops the fundamental idea he introduced 10 years ago (the Serious Leisure Perspective) based on Anthony Giddens’ theory of structure—which is reflected in the subtitle of Stebbins’ book: “A Micro-Macro/AgencyStructure Interpretation of Leisure.” Stebbins categorizes context at the micro-, meso-, and macro-levels, emphasizing that leisure research always focuses on only one layer, and no one has previously attempted to paint the big picture. In this vein, he formulates the goal of his new book—to show how different levels communicate with each other in the field of leisure. Stebbins uses his own theory as a classification of leisure activities divided into three types: serious, relaxed, and project-based. He expresses the hope that, after reading his new book, readers will stop looking at leisure activities solely from the perspective of micro-structure.</p> Alex Vakarash Copyright (c) 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 22 3 114 121 The Dynamics of Dissertation Industry in Russia, 2005–2015. Did New Institutional Templates Change Academic Behavior? <p>The paper introduces the notion of the “institutional template,” defined as a highly legitimate example of a certain practice to which formal mechanisms of assessing the degree of correspondence are attached. Arguably, institutional templates are currently the major vehicles through which coercive isomorphism spreads across the academic world. While correspondence measures often take form of quantitative indicators, this is not always the case, so this paper analyzes the history of regulations of dissertation production in Russia as an example of a predominantly non-quantitative template. We use three datasets covering approximately 250,000 cases of dissertation defenses in Russia between 2005 and 2015 to discover the outcomes of the template’s introduction in the dissertation industry. We show how the new regulations allowed a reduction in the number of defenses—nearly by half. However, contrary to the intentions of the template inventors, the reduction was distributed evenly between mathematics, natural sciences (presumably less affected by degree devaluation), and social sciences (the most affected). There was also no concentration of dissertation production in the top research centers and no evidence of intensified migration of degree candidates to such centers. Overall, there is no evidence that the template produced more obstacles for authors of low-quality dissertations than those of high quality. Using the data from interviews with members of dissertation councils, we argue the results of the template: first, it required enormous bureaucratic efforts to demonstrate an individual’s ability to fit into it, and, second, its inability to account for local circumstances of particular disciplines sometimes resulted in de facto negative selection.</p> Katerina Guba Mikhail Sokolov Nadezhda Sokolova Copyright (c) 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 22 3 13 46 Enrichment: A Critique of Commodities (excerpts) <p>The authors of this book argue that Western capitalism has recently undergone a fundamental transformation that especially apparent in those countries responsible fpr European industrial primacy. There are two significant dimensions of the work: historical and analytical. The first dimension focuses on economic changes that have been observed since the late 20th century and dramatically modified the way value and wealth are created today: on one hand, the transformation characterized by deindustrialization; and, on the other, the increased exploitation of certain resources that, while not entirely new, have taken on an unprecedented importance. The second direction aims to understand how different commodities can generate transactions perceived as normal by buyers and sellers and that fit preliminary expectations to a certain degree. From a theoretical perspective, the authors deliberate pragmatic structuralism that combines social history with the analysis of cognitive competences upon which actors rely. In terms of empirical data, the authors use statistics enriched with a set of various formal and informal interviews, focusing on France as a case where the mentioned transformation is more distinctive.</p> <p>The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes some excerpts from the second chapter “Toward Enrichment” where the authors define the main sources and benefits of the enrichment economy. The enrichment economy is based less on producing new objects and more on enriching existing things and places by connecting them with specific narratives.</p> Luc Boltanski Arnaud Esquerre Copyright (c) 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 22 3 47 55 Way Out of the Matrix <p>The feature of this review is to study the properties of modern communications and relations between humans and information. An American journalist and ex-editor of The New Republic, Franklin Foer studies the origins, present, and future of new media. Starting with the meaning of their own names, global network companies claim to everyone that they are ruling the world. Social networks and even search engines collect data with ease and impunity from unsuspecting users who voluntarily publish open access information about themselves. Then, after acquiring the information they need, corporations like Google, Facebook, and Amazon use algorithms to control the behavior of a large part of the world. The review highlights the most important topics of the book: the reasons for degradation of individual taste and thought, ways corporations can follow their clients, the crisis of book publishing and professional journalism, and the importance of privacy. Foer does not spread panic; rather, he explains to the reader what problems modern information society faces. One of the main difficulties is that search engines and social networks do not allow users to filter content (despite an abundance of it) according to users’ personal interests but instead organize the output of material according to internal algorithms. Perhaps we should turn to traditional ways of comprehending the world, such as reading paper books. The Internet itself as a means of communication is not the ultimate evil but the fact that it has been turned into the only way of communication means it is relied on too extensively. As a result, the book World Without Mind by Franklin Foer offers a way to “exit the matrix” of the digital age.</p> Alexander Subbotin Copyright (c) 2020 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 22 3 101 113 International Seminar on Environment and Society “Current Challenges and Pathways to Change”, University of Lisbon, Portugal, March 2–3, 2020 <p>The first International Seminar on Environment and Society was held from March 2nd to 3rd, 2020 in Lisbon, Portugal under the motto of “Current Challenges and Pathways to Change.” The seminar was organized by the Environment and Society Section of the Portuguese Association of Sociology in collaboration with the Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon and the PhD program in Climate Change and Sustainable Development Policies. The seminar aimed to engage social science researchers in a discussion of global environmental agendas, thus establishing complicated relationships between environment and society (both natural and anthropogenic), their consequences for sustainable development, and critical assessment of the current and forthcoming risks of decision-making for the future. The program was organized in two days: the main sections were held simultaneously in five auditoriums, and the presentations of keynote speakers opened and closed each day. Apart from researchers in sociology and social sciences, the seminar was attended by a wide range of participants from a variety of disciplines including geology, philosophy, and legal studies, representing 19 countries around the world. The keynote speakers of the conference were Alan Irwin (Professor, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark), Luísa Schmidt (Professor, Institute of Social Sciences, University of Lisbon, Portugal), Matthias Gross (Professor, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ and University of Jena, Germany), Noel Castree (Professor, School of Environment, Education and Development, University of Manchester, United Kingdom). They shared their understandings of the relationships between social groups and the environment and the environment and society as a whole. This seminar has established itself as a crucial event for productive discussion, demonstrating that social scientists around the world are responsive to environmental issues and stand ready to contribute to solving them.</p> Daria Lebedeva Copyright (c) 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 22 3 122 129 Social Embeddedness as a Business Goal: New Theoretical Implications from the Case of a Global Value Chain <p>This paper provides new theoretical implications for the concept of social embeddedness as one of the main objectives for business relations. Previous studies have considered social embeddedness as an external factor to market exchanges that forms outside of economic relations; in other words, embeddedness appears as an incidental product of market interactions. Here, I propose that social embeddedness is being intentionally constructed by market actors as an integral part of a business process. This view is developed by a theoretical adaptation of studies in relational marketing and the sociology of valuation. Relational marketing shows that interfirm relations have additional value for businesses and can educate market practitioners to intensify social interactions. Valuation studies explain the process of value creation for end goods, and this explanation is applied to interpreting the value of interfirm relations. For the empirical validation, I focus on the field of global value chains because the global coordination of business interactions requires an explicit discussion of relational characteristics. The research is performed using a qualitative design. The empirical part consists of 13 months of participant observation as a sales manager in a Russian global value chain that works in fast-moving consumer goods and consumer electronics. Also, 33 deep semistructured interviews were conducted with employees of the global value chain. Data analysis is performed within a grounded theory perspective. The empirical section demonstrates that the proposed vision of embeddedness as an integral and desirable part of a business process is applicable to firm practices. Economic actors participate in permanent valuation processes to maintain a common interpretation of interfirm relations; they conceptualize business ties as an important source of market value.</p> Boris Belyavskiy Copyright (c) 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 22 3 151 173 Behind the Scene of Soviet Runway Fashion: Capital and Position in the Field <p class="text">This paper presents an approach to describe and analyze the accumulation of specific capital in a Soviet design organization during the late Soviet period from 1968 to 1982. Compared to the Stalin and Thaw periods, the system of fashion production under Late Socialism is less explored. The functioning of regional clothing design houses which constituted a specific feature of the Soviet system of fashion production during this period is underexplored as well. As far as we know, this study is the first attempt to apply Bourdieu’s theory of the field of production to Soviet fashion production. Researchers do not typically use sociological theories of production to analyze Soviet fashion. The study denotes the categories of specific capital, hierarchies, and dynamics of the field of production. The system of fashion production in the late Soviet period is considered a very particular case in a non-capitalist society. There are two components of the study. The first one reconstructs the hierarchy of the Soviet system of fashion production. The second one describes professional strategies to accumulate specific capital and to occupy a position in the field of production. The study focuses on two cases of development and presentation of clothing collections by Perm Clothing Design House during union and cluster meetings of designers from 1968 to 1969 and 1979 to 1982. The paper relies on published research on Soviet fashion history, archive documents from the Russian State Economic Archive and State Archive of Perm Territory, and in-depth interviews with former employees of the Perm Clothing Design House. The results discuss the applicability of the term of “specific capital” to the explanation of the construction processes of hierarchies in the late Soviet field of fashion production. The paper contributes to the earlier conclusions on the ambiguities of Soviet fashion policy. It also introduces the definition of “specific capital” as official representatives’ appreciation of the balance between an officially approved seasonal fashion trend and the creative search achieved by designers of a certain design house. It suggests that a weird combination of socialist and pseudo-market practices penetrated and restricted Soviet fashion production.</p> Iuliia Papushina Copyright (c) 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 22 3 56 83 What Do We Know About 21st Century Youth? American Teens Through the Eyes of a Psychologist <p class="text">A book written by American psychologist Jean M. Twenge iGen. Why Today's Super-Connected Kids Are Growing Up Less Rebellious, More Tolerant, Less Happy—and Completely Unprepared for Adulthood—and What That Means for the Rest of Us describes the change in values, identity and behavior of adolescents born during the period from 1995 to 2012, the Internet Generation known as iGens. The book represents a good example of thorough data analysis, using the results of sociological surveys that originated in the 1960`s and covering opinions of more than 11 million Americans. Guided by such extensive empirical material, the author infers that adolescents have begun to grow up more slowly, plunge into the virtual world at the expense of reality, presume upon new media, communicate less, and show less interest in news. All that led to a degradation of knowledge and skills, a lack of sophistication, the growth of mental disorders, a lack of self-confidence, angst, and the spread of perverse attitudes towards education, work, family and money. The main reasons for such fundamental changes lie in the safer environment of iGens’ childhoods as well as their greater involvement in digital technologies and information. Accustomed to being supervised externally, iGens internally dive into virtual reality, lose interest in extracting knowledge themselves (reducing their ability to overcome obstacles or desire to take risks), and receive much less real experience. iGens are a few times less likely to meet friends, go on dates, get professional experience, drive a car, drink alcohol, read books, or keep up on the news than representatives of generations X and Y. At the same time, iGens spend twice as much time on the Internet than millennials. Uncontrollably and indiscriminately absorbing primitive and chaotic information, modern adolescents lose their integrity. This is evidenced by the growth of anxiety, mental disorders, and suicides. The example of American teenagers shows that people might lose the very abilities for which the technologies have been created (e. g. interpersonal communication, critical thinking, information awareness, creativity, personal growth, safety, etc.).</p> Anita Poplavskaya Copyright (c) 2020 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 22 3 84 100 Editor's Foreword <p><em>Detailed description in the text</em></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2020-05-26 2020-05-26 22 3 9 12 The Enemy of My Enemy or About the Uniting Potential of Market Radicalism <p>This paper is a review of Radical Markets: Uprooting Capitalism and Democracy for a Just Society, the book by Eric A. Posner and Glen E. Weyl and published in 2018. Prof. Posner works at the University of Chicago, where his scholarship is dedicated to international law, foreign relations law, contracts, and game theory and the law. Glen E. Weyl is a Prior Researcher at Microsoft Research New England who also teaches a course Designing the Digital Economy at Yale University. The book concentrates on solutions for the problems of inequality and stagnation. The authors claim that solutions need a combination of left and right theoretical principles. Such a combination allows for institutional systems to approach market principles of freedom, competition, and openness. The market is considered the best tool for providing both equality and economic growth. Five relatively separate spheres are studied in the book, and the same monopolistic restrictions are highlighted. Each chapter presents a solution for one sphere that should enforce free competition and destroy a monopoly.</p> <p>This review proposes an interpretation that the reasonings presented in the book do not create a compromise between left and right. The authors develop a right liberal tradition instead. All the propositions are based on the principles of utilitarianism, marginalist calculations, and neoclassical economics. Simultaneously, the presented solutions appear historically relevant for both approaches, while the solutions do not overcome the theoretical contradictions between neoliberalism and critical theory in the economy and between liberalism and republicanism in politics. The book’s general ideas are discussed after the introduction. Next, specific cases are analyzed through comparison of the principles of liberalism, critical theory, and republicanism. A discussion about the efficiency of theoretical compromises concludes the paper.</p> Boris Belyavski Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 22 3 Editor's Foreword <p><em>Detailed description in the text</em></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 22 3 8 10 The Philosophy of Early Christianity and the Challenges of Digitalization. <p>From December 6 to 7, 2019, the international conference, “Philosophy of Early Christianity in the Era of Digitalization,” was held at Fu Jen Catholic University in the capital of Taiwan, Taipei, with the participation of sociologists from the Saint Tikhon Orthodox Humanitarian University. Currently, all developed countries are evolving the digitalization process. It goes without saying that this is reflected in the economy. Today, even traditionally offline sectors of the national economy are increasingly using cloud computing, big data, and the Internet of things. At the same time, the process of digitalization cannot be reduced solely to the development of the digital economy, since it affects all significant areas of society’s life—social, political, and cultural.</p> <p>Some researchers believe that the digitalization process affects not only the social but also the personal sphere of the individual and brings about a changein needs, whereby the need for information exchange becomes basic. In this regard, the risks of the digitalization process should be noted: technological (artificial intelligence can get out of control); economic (the risk of unemployment due to automation and the substitution of artificial intelligence for a number of professions, on the one hand, and the risk of a shortage of qualified personnel necessary for the development of the digital economy on the other); socio-political (including the risk of escalation of cyber wars between countries); and finally the moral risk, which is the dehumanization of consciousness. The speakers at the conference, representatives of both European and Asian universities, endeavored to understand the trends in the development of the social process of digitalization from the positions of early Christian thinkers.</p> <p>The conference showed the need to study the social process of digitalization in the framework of an interdisciplinary approach at the international level.</p> Igor Ryazantsev Vasiliy Pisarevskiy Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 22 3 91 98 Why do Marshrutkas Exist in One City and Not in Others? Toward a Political Economy of Routes in Russian Urban Public Transportation <p class="text">Urban public transportation in Russia has changed significantly since the fall of the USSR. In many cities, marshrutkas have completely replaced the classical public modes of transportation. Other cities have, however, tried to balance the electric transport system with marshrutkas. Some cities also have trams and articulated buses on their streets, with minibuses completely absent. The reasons for such huge differences are not obvious. Various approaches have failed to explain why marshrutkas are present on the streets in one city but absent in others. The hypothesis here is that the routes were privatized by marshrutka-operating companies. The conceptual framework is based on the works of Karl Polanyi, Vadim Volkov, and Michael Burawoy. Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2016: eight in Moscow, one in St. Petersburg, and ten in provincial cities, such as Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Ulyanovsk, Dimitrovgrad, and Cherepovetz. Research has shown that the fundamental problem for marshrutka operators is the danger of the reconsideration of route owners’ property rights. The difference between cities with and cities without marshrutkas is described not only in terms of a continuance of property rights but also through spatial characteristics of the industrial backgrounds. This view on urban public transport calls for a fresh discussion on regulation issues in transportation studies, the commodification of mobility, and the political economy of transport.</p> Egor Muleev Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 22 3 99 113 Some Regularities in Establishing Regional Categories of Specially Protected Natural Territories <p class="text">Protection of the environment and specially protected natural territories are in the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and its constituent entities. In particular, constituent entities have the power to establish their own categories of specially protected natural territories (called regional categories) besides the categories prescribed by the federal law On Specially Protected Natural Territories. The diversity of regional categories has been studied only superficially, despite the fact that such research may be valuable for finding out the drawbacks of federal and regional legislation and for identifying the ways it can be improved. It may also result in general insights about Russian lawmaking under joint jurisdiction. The study presented in this paper aimed to find the regularities in the legislative activity of Russia’s constituent entities in the field of establishing regional categories. For this purpose, the full list of regional categories as of August 1, 2019 was made and then processed with text mining algorithms, including word clouds, bigram analysis, word correlations, and clustering of categories’ names using their vector representations made with Fasttext. Several large groups of regional categories were determined as a result: protected natural objects (analogous to natural monuments), protected landscapes and natural complexes, protected green zones of populated localities, recreational areas, and areas of historical and cultural designation, which are similar to cultural heritage objects. Some constituent entities fill the gaps in federal regulation; they follow the paradigm of anticipatory lawmaking and provide for special rules for territories under international agreements, such as wetlands of international importance, or they partially implement protected area categories adopted by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. However, some regional categories are likely to indicate a low level of legal technique in regional lawmaking. This analysis of regional categories points out three deficiencies of the Russian federal legislation on protected areas: instability of legislation, excessive rigidity of the federal categories system, and flaws in the protection of areas valuable for conservation of biodiversity, recreation, and support for ecological balance.</p> Pavel Syomin Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 22 3 11 38 Transformations of Governmentality Regimes under the Influenceof New Areas of Knowledge: the Case of Behavioral Economics <p class="text">This article is a review of relevant scientific literature on the consequences of the growing popularity of behavioral economics in the field of public administration and public policy. The main result of behavioral research that arose in the 1970s at the intersection of psychology and economics was the discovery of irrational decision-making mechanisms and the rejection of the traditional economic concepts of human nature. Revision of the axioms of the rational choice theory in turn made possible the emergence of new public policy instruments that can influence unconscious psychological triggers, compensating for the cognitive insufficiency of the governed subjects. An active appeal to cognitive sciences, including behavioral economics, neuroscience, and research in the field of artificial intelligence, is one of the main trends in modern public administration. In many countries, the recommendations of the so-called nudge theory by Richard Thaler and Cass Sunstein are being introduced at the national government level. The question arises whether behavioral economics can become the new paradigm of economic policy, or whether we are witnessing the radicalization of neoliberalism, which is trying to overcome the structural economic problems with the help of new scientific discoveries. Using Michel Foucault’s governmentality analytics and existing research on this topic, the author shows that conceptual changes in economic theory significantly influence the balance of power relations in society. In particular, the pressure of modern cognitive sciences on liberal notions of autonomy, as well as the expansion of the range of psychological tools used to govern the population, sharpen the question of the compatibility of the basic political categories of liberalism and the new technologies of governance. It creates the prerequisites for the formation and strengthening of quasi-authoritarian regimes of power that are able to achieve economic efficiency without appealing to active subjects and personal freedom.</p> Arnold Khachaturov Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 22 3 39 61 The Condition of Postmodernity. An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change (an excerpt) <p>The book by David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity. An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change, presented deep research into the nature of postmodernism, considered not as a set of ideas but rather as historical conditions. The author claimed that roughly since 1972 cultural as well as political and economic practices changed globally, including the rise of postmodern cultural forms and the emergence of flexible capital accumulation. According to the author, those changes were conditioned by the new prevailing modes of how people experienced time and space, indicating the new cycle of time-space compression in the organization of capitalism. The book consists of four parts. In the first part, Prof. Harvey reviewed the dominating but conflicting theories of postmodernism. In the other chapters he considered the relationship between the dynamics of the historical and geographical development of capitalism, complicated processes of cultural production, and ideological transformation. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the tenth chapter, “Theorizing the Transition,” from the second part of the book, “The Political-Economic Transformation of Late Twentieth-Century Capitalism.” In this chapter, the author demonstrated that existing theories had difficulties in explaining the observed historical transition from Fordism to flexible accumulation. In order to overcome these problems, Harvey proposed a return to capitalism's origins to reconsider its logic generally with the help of Marx’s theories.</p> Вфмшв Harvey Copyright (c) 2020-04-02 2020-04-02 22 3 62 75 Subjective Well-being of Migrants in Russia: Effects of Regional Characteristics and Migration Legislation <p>Migration is an important and rapidly growing phenomenon in the modern world. Many countries are facing problems with integration and adaption of migrants to new living conditions. Subjective well-being (SWB) can be considered as an indicator of how successfully migrants are adapted and integrated into the host society. Levels of migrants’ SWB are often determined by the same factors as for other people—good health, high salary, employment and youth make them happier. Nonetheless, migrants’ decision to migrate is often led by economic motives, which leads them to overvalue economic characteristics of countries and regions of destination and undervalue non-economic factors. This paper aims to estimate the effects of the economic prosperity (measured by gross regional product) and social capital of Russian regions (measured by general social trust and relative size of the community of the migrant’s compatriots) on the life satisfaction of migrants. In addition, we analyze possible effect of the inclusion of the migrants’ country of origin into Eurasian Customs Union. To answer the proposed questions we employed data of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey—Higher School of Economics (RLMS-HSE) and statistics provided by Russian Federal State Statistics Service. The main method of analysis is a cross-classified multilevel linear regression modeling. The results show that the economic performance of a region has no effect on the life satisfaction of a migrant. It appears that social factors play a greater role—the effects of general social trust and the relative size of the community of a migrant’s compatriots in a region are positive and statistically significant. We found that inclusion of the country of migrants’ origin into the Eurasian Customs Union positively and significantly affects the life satisfaction of migrants. We associate this effect with a decrease in the economic and psychological costs of migration.</p> Emil Kamalov Eduard Ponarin Copyright (c) 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 22 3 11 43 The One-Sided Participation <p>This book by three prominent researchers of communities' cultures and the technological impact on the society includes a conversation in the title and takes it seriously. The text is a compilation of authors’ talks about applying the definition of participatory culture to the analysis of diverse spheres of social life and is an implicit call to join the conversation, argue for theses and offer your own at the same time.<br>Each author unsurprisingly has his or her own interpretation of the major definition of participatory culture, but all of them feel deeply involved in their research subject, which M. Weber has warned against: All three scientists identify themselves as former or present natives of the participatory culture. The deep emotional involvement in the research subject leaves a trace and, in our view, complements the analysis.<br>Hence the authors have not only made fruitful (almost autobiographical) research into participatory culture but also have made very useful social recommendations about the efficient and cautious application of it in the educational sphere and resolution of the intergenerational conflicts and have called on researchers generally not to marginalize the representatives of participatory cultures’ communities. Of course, promotion of democratizing, educational and other positive roles of the participatory culture is important and very practical. Alongside its analysis of participatory cultures the book includes an updated look at the traditional definitions of social groups, social networks and forms of capital. In this review, the author tries to systematize scientists’ points of view on the most prominent themes highlighted in the book. Moreover we had the opportunity to join the conversation with these three eminent scientists and mentally visit (and present to the reader) the living room of Henry Jenkins, which was the site of most of the conversations in the book.</p> Ilya Pavlov Copyright (c) 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 22 3 100 112 Work Practices of Older Population Groups: Reasons for Choice <p>The most important challenge for developed and developing countries of the 21st century, in the opinion of the United Nations, is increasing lifespans alongside fertility reduction. This is shown to result in the maintenance of older people’s health and labor activity at an average level. At the same time high developed IT leads to a growing sharing economy. This results in labor market changes and global digitalization of the economy compounds this. At the same time the economic crises lead to reducing household incomes. There are a lot of older population groups in the labor market at an age when their parents had already retired, so youth unemployment stems from older people competing with younger for jobs. Aggressive ageism is one of the characteristics of such a situation. Governments are paying people to retire later. As a result, the labor market consists of senior employees who are trying to give their family an acceptable standard of living even if they are old enough to retire, and young and middle-aged employees. These groups compete with each other, and the more heterogeneous the labor force, the more intense the competition becomes. As a result, countries propose political programs to reduce the negative impact of the demographic crisis. For Russia this problem is also a current problem. But Russia is beginning its path. It needs to interpret the experiences of Western countries and choose its own way. This article offers a detailed examination of the labor practices of older population groups. The first labor practice investigated is leaving the labor market, the second is employment and the third is self-employment, including entrepreneurship. The author shows how the classification of causes leads to the choice of a specific strategy at labor market. She theorizes that neoliberalism gives older people a new ability to help country economy, rather than being disability recipients. As a result, the author concludes that although the problem of the aging population in Russia and in developed countries is the same, but a common practice is not suitable. And the new Russian pension reform that increases the retirement age may lead to a national catastrophe as older people have difficulties to find work and have no cash savings.</p> Maria Kartuzova Copyright (c) 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 22 3 81 99 Regional Differences in Access to Educational Resources, Academic Results and Students’ Trajectories in Russia <p>Today little is known about regional inequality in education in Russia. In this article we analyze regional differences in educational resources in association with regions’ socio-economic characteristics, and in addition we assess the relationship of regions’ socio-economic characteristics and educational resources with the proportion of students remaining in high school as well as with the average results of the Unified State Exam (end of high school test) in two compulsory subjects—Russian and math. We test theories of effectively maintained inequality and maximally maintained inequality using data of Russia regions that we retrieve from open sources—publications of Rosstat and federal and regional education agencies. To estimate the relationship we use correlation and regression analysis. Our results show that more urbanized regions with higher levels of human capital and GRP are usually characterized by the higher level of school expenditures, more experienced teachers, and higher chances for students to study at the advanced level. The same time, the level of urbanization and human capital is positively related to the proportion of students that choose an academic trajectory after finishing secondary school. Finally, the results of the Unified State Exam are also positively associated with access to educational resources. In both subjects, the average test score is higher in the regions with a higher proportion of students in lyceums/gymnasiums and in schools with advanced study options. In Russian, the exam results are also related to the proportion of students remaining in high school. In general, regional inequality in access to educational resources overlaps with socio-economic differences, which produces a situation of double loss or double advantage. Greater access to better educational resources in regions with higher human capital supports effectively maintained inequality theory. At the same time the fact that a lower proportion of students choose an academic trajectory after grade 9 in regions with less human capital could be evidence of maximally maintained inequality. The article could be interesting to readers whose area of study relates to problems of education inequality and education policy.</p> Andrey Zakharov Kseniya Adamovich Copyright (c) 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 22 3 60 80 Basic Income: A Radical Proposal for a Free Society and a Sane Economy (excerpts) <p>The idea of providing people with income independently of the job they perform or seek seems mad. However, providing each individual (rich and poor, economically active and inactive) with an unconditional basic income was supported by such famous thinkers as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill, and John Kenneth Galbraith. For a long time this idea has not been taken seriously. At present, as the traditional welfare state has been straining under an increasing pressure, the basic income has become the most popular social policy project to discuss worldwide. Philippe Van Parijs and Yannick Vanderborght argue that the basic income can overcome the economic insecurity and social exclusion of the 21st century. The authors combine some evidence from philosophy, politics and economics in order to compare the proposal of a basic income with other projects to alleviate poverty and unemployment, trace its history, and find answers to economic and political arguments against unconditional income, including the argument about a tendency to decreased stimulus and free-rider models of behavior that might result from the basic income; to explain how this seemingly impossible idea can be achieved economically and politically; and to consider its applicability to the extending global economy. In the age of increasing inequality and political fragmentation, when the old answers to deeply embedded social issues are not credible, the basic income offers the hope of achieving a free society and a sane economy. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes some excerpts from the first chapter “The Instrument of Freedom” in which the authors provide the main considerations in favor of an unconditional basic income, demonstrating how it solves the problems of poverty and unemployment as well as how, as one of the most important elements of a sustainable emancipatory institutional infrastructure, it can become a tool of freedom.</p> Philippe Van Parijs Yannick Vanderborght Copyright (c) 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 22 3 44 59 Editor's Foreword <p>.</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 22 3 7 10 10.17323/1726-3247-2020-1-7-10 Interview with John W. Meyer: If You Study Organizations You Should Not Believe in Them (interviewed by Elena Gudova) <p>An interview with John W. Meyer, emeritus Professor of Sociology, and by courtesy Education, at Stanford University, was conducted in October 2019 during his visit to the 10th International Russian Higher Education Conference (RHEC) in Moscow on “Contributions of Higher Education to Society and Economy: Global, National and Local Perspectives.” The interview was performed by Elena Gudova, PhD and a lecturer in the Department of Economic Sociology at the Higher School of Economics. John Meyer talks about the rise of hyper-managerialism and its implications for modern organizations. While previously, organizations tended to be subordination actors, today they have more legitimation in choosing mission and purposes, which marks a shift from management authority toward leadership and implies a need for managers with charismatic qualities. Business schools, in their courses and educational processes, emphasize the importance of failures as part of entrepreneurs’ experiences, while questions of vision are rarely a part of the agenda. Still, even a great charismatic leader/entrepreneur may lack authority because of a decontextualized vision as local communities’ interests are usually not represented. Organizations with good vision (i.e., with proper corporate social responsibilities) may legitimate themselves through the routinization of the leader’s charisma, the incorporation of norms of good citizenship, and the self-management of employees and citizens. As Meyer puts it, “You have to be an okay-person in the modern hyper-organizational context.” Due to these new scripts in the character of an individual, John Meyer discusses distinctions between the American and German educational systems and some possible outcomes for the world based on the German educational model instead of on the American one. As current types of organizational responses might be treated as invasive for individuals (even though they are useful in many ways), the German system resists many of the hyper-liberal changes in a much better way. Another focus of Meyer’s interests is connected with changes in universities and those in science in general. He talks about the mutual influence of society and academia and the legitimation of scientific knowledge, both per se and in educational process. A simple, but still important, issue regards keeping a research distance and asking the right questions, as moral commitment might weaken the research. The solution may be in comparing education to the forces that produce the observed changes, and not to what we imagine to be an ideal educational process and product.</p> John W. Meyer Copyright (c) 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 22 3 127 139 International workshop “The Varieties of Power in the Economy”, NRU HSE, Moscow, July 3–4, 2020 <p>Journal of Economic Sociology. Vol. 21. No 1. January 2020www.ecsoc.hse.ru140International workshopThe Varieties of Power in the Economy3–4 July 2020Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, National Research University “Higher School of Economics” (NRU HSE), Moscow, Russia</p> <p>Deadline for Submissions—15 February 2020</p> Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 22 3 123 126 International workshop “The Varieties of Power in the Economy”, NRU HSE, Moscow, July 3–4, 2020 <p>Journal of Economic Sociology. Vol. 21. No 1. January 2020www.ecsoc.hse.ru140International workshopThe Varieties of Power in the Economy3–4 July 2020Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, National Research University “Higher School of Economics” (NRU HSE), Moscow, Russia</p> <p>Deadline for Submissions—15 February 2020</p> Редакция Журнала Copyright (c) 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 22 3 140 142 Between Gift and Profit: Appropriative Practices as a New Approach to Digital Economy Analysis <p>The author of the book sets the non-trivial task of developing an approach to the economic analysis that would include the diversity of economic practices and at the same time indicate the recipients of benefits. In criticizing the ideas of Marxists and mainstream economists, the author concludes that they are unable to see economies beyond capitalism and market relations, which automatically excludes gifts and hybrid economic forms from any economic analysis. Five case studies from the digital economy of Apple, Wikipedia, Google, YouTube and Facebook demonstrate the analytical potential of a new approach—the political economy of practices, which considers the diversity of economic practices. By putting emphasis on various combinations of appropriating practices, the author demonstrates the success of the enterprises in the digital economy, which cannot be explained by perfect competition or the exploitation of wage labor.<br>This book is an excellent example of the substantive approach to economic analysis and would be especially interesting to those who are interested in the coexistence of market and non-market economic forms, particularly in the digital world.</p> Maria Denisova Copyright (c) 2020-01-31 2020-01-31 22 3 113 122 Dynamics of Middle Classes: Between Expansion and Uncertainty Russian-French Scientific Conference, NRU HSE, Moscow, October 3rd, 2019 <p>The conference “Dynamics of Middle Classes: Between Expansion and Uncertainty” was conducted at NRU HSE. The conference was devoted to stratification issues in general and the middle class in particular. The conference was organized by the Institute for Social Policy NRU HSE and the French Embassy in Russia.<br>The topic of the middle class has been popular for a long time, but there is still no unique definition for this notion. The participants in the conference managed to touch upon three levels of work in terms of “the middle class”: theory, methodology, and empirical studies. Regarding the theory of the middle class, the presenters mentioned that economic and sociological theories exist and are described in their main theoretical models. The analysis of different papers devoted to the middle class provides the ability to show diversity at a methodological level, including the diversity of criteria used for middle class identification. Nevertheless, the common idea for most of the approaches is the idea of object complexity and the necessity to combine several characteristics to identify the middle class. Appealing to empirical studies of the middle class in Russia and France showed that in both countries, the middle class is not homogenous, and it is better to use the term “middle classes.” In Russia, the middle class has relatively high levels of well-being but is not autonomous from the state. However, it does not feel that social protection is critical due to existing inequalities and a lack of stability in society.</p> Elena Nazarbaeva Copyright (c) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 22 3 202 209 “When a Failed Contract is Better than Doable”: How a “New” Understanding of Financial Obligations in the Mortgage Market Led to the Financial Crisis in the United States and Around the World <p>A book from an American anthropologist of Indian origin, Arjun Appadurai, was written much later than the World Financial Crisis of 2007–2008 (WFC). The book introduces the origins of the crisis not from a purely economic position, but from a “substantive” perspective through the prism of economic anthropology and sociology. In this book, Appadurai seeks answers to the question of how the financial systems of some countries began to rely on a large set of “special” arrangements via working with derivatives, thus being tied to great risks and serious uncertainty. Appadurai introduces the principle of “failure of the language,” meaning the communication between financial participants and their intermediaries, emphasizing that the “risks” of non-fulfillment have been “forced” to be more important and mostly more profitable than the direct fulfillment of obligations. The resulting economic collapse was possible to clarify and “foresee” by considering the nature of long-term financial obligations (particularly derivatives), placing them into the analytical frameworks of M. Weber, compared to the logic of E. Durkheim and K. Marx, F. Knight, and E. Ayash. The value of the book is in the understanding of modern financial ideology, where “flirting” with uncertainty and working with “air” are considered as working practices. In a series of chapters, Appadurai indicates the hidden “spiritual” power of contractual obligations, which to some extent, fits into the logic of the Western capitalist system. At the same time, it casts a shadow on the nature of contracts, in particular the capitalist one — their assimilation into “scoring,” “promise,” speculation and excitement, which benefit more than the actual activity of people. The central empirical object of the book is that CDS is in the mortgage lending market, in which “overheating” was provoked (in many respects) by the WFC. The review attempts to disentangle the logic of the presentation of all nine non-standardly written chapters of the work, with subsequent analysis and reasoning over the aspects left over from the framework of the author's argumentation system. We believe that the review complements these theses.</p> Stanislav Pashkov Copyright (c) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 22 3 188 201 Paradoxes Legality—Illegality—Legitimacy Intersections in the Architecture of Markets <p>Boundaries of illegality in markets for goods and services are blurring. These boundaries are associated with the development of capitalist relations. The illegality becomes pervasive and gains increasingly sophisticated links with formal legality and social legitimacy. At the same time, the role of the state in the illegal market exchanges is intensified by preserving the institutional gap between formal and informal rules. In this respect, the book The Architecture of Illegal Markets. Towards an Economic Sociology of Illegality in the Economy develops a non-trivial research task for the modern economic-sociological paradigm. Its authors contest the existence of boundaries between the phenomena of legality and legitimacy, including mechanisms for compliance with informal rules within formal institutions that regulate illegal markets. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the paradoxical interdiction of legality and legitimacy that the book’s authors describe, using the metaphor of interfaces that build the essence of illegal market architectures. The review reference points are the most important topics that the authors of the conference proceedings mention, such as the types and components of illegality in the markets of goods and services; the question of the boundaries between legality, illegality, and legitimacy; and the role of the state in the development of illegality in the markets. This text concludes that the book draws the landscape of illegality, which is viewed in close association with the phenomena of legality and legitimacy. The authors’ research goes beyond the phenomenon of illegality and expands the understanding of the informal economy constituents.</p> Yuliya Belova Copyright (c) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 22 3 174 188 Interview with Joseph Vogl. Intellectual History and Political Economy of Modern Capitalism (interviewed by Ivan Boldyrev) <p>The contemporary positions of economic theory and the modern development of the capitalist system were the main topics of discussion with Prof. Joseph Vogl. Several questions were discussed regarding aesthetics, historical and political contexts, the temporality of economic knowledge, and its reflexivity. Prof. Vogl spoke about his studies aimed at the investigation of aesthetic representation and the poetics of economic models and abstractions in different genres, such as literature, theatre, and poetry. During the conversation, Prof. Vogl problematized the objectivity of conclusions in economic disciplines, while economics has not been considered in a historical context that forms an agenda. The author problematized the objectivity of conclusions that pretend to be in the economic discipline, although economics has not been considered as a historical context that forms its agenda. Prof. Vogl claimed that modern economic theory, like early political economy, is historically rooted in its agenda determined by the structure of power interests. Furthermore, the expansion process of financial markets represents the development of new forms of governmentality and institutional order. Through these forms, financial capital becomes the lender of last resort, which is not subordinate to central banks and federal governments.</p> Joseph Vogl Copyright (c) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 22 3 11 27 Are Russian Students Ready to be Law-Abiding Taxpayers? Tax Morality Issues <p>Tax morality is formed by the influence of social and psychology factors on society and has a great impact on the choice of deviating model behaviors by taxpayers. In this regard, tax evasion would be preferable to use in the behavioral economy instrumentarium, as it provides an opportunity to evaluate the effects of norms and behavior stereotypes formed in an individual choice. A survey among students from districts in the North-Caucasus Federal Region was held to estimate the level of tax morale. The results were analyzed using the z-test and the model formation of binary logistic regression. The research results have shown that interviewees are ready to evade tax legislation, even though most express a strong reluctance to attempt tax evasion. The main reasons for this are a low level of confidence in the legal system, the perception of the tax system as unfair, and the social norm distortions and the existence of entrenched behavioral stereotypes. With these stereotypes, tax evasion is not perceived as a grave violation. The existence of an unfair tax system, with a focus on retributive justice, leads to the violation of a psychological party to the agreement between the state and taxpayers as the appearance of “moral reasons” for the excuses of strategy choice for the tax evasion. In this regard, the integration of social norms, which regulate the interaction of the tax payers and the state, as well as a stimulating mechanism of loyalty enhancement on base of expanding frontiers in collaboration, into the system of tax administration will enable to create an alternative way of the rational choice for the tax players which will be not only morally praiseworthy but also economically justified.</p> Vladimir Molodykh Copyright (c) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 22 3 150 173 The Theatre, the Audience and the State: Twelve Economist’s Comments <p>Rubinstein’s article presents the results of the “First All-Russian Sociological Survey of Theater Audience,” which covered all Federal Districts and constituent entities of the Russian Federation (about 200 cities), in which more than 90% of all professional theaters are registered. More than 12,000 respondents expressed their opinions by answering a special questionnaire posted on the sites of the regional branches of the Union of Theater Workers, special theatrical tickets, and their own theatre sites, as well as several higher educational institutions. For the first time, this work reveals the preferences of the public, from their attitudes toward the repertoire posters of Russian theaters and traditional and innovative productions to the creative composition of theaters and their functions, including performances in movie theaters. A fundamentally new result is a measured audience assessment of the creative potential of Russian theaters, which made it possible to find the reasons that impede its full implementation. The obtained sociological information characterizes the assessments and behavior of the theatrical audience. The results of economic analysis, using official statistics, made it possible to view the whole process of creating performances comprehensively look at the whole process of creating performances and their public demonstration as well as the production and consumption of theater goods, including the relationship between state and municipal theaters. Their founders, who are fulfilling their budgetary obligations, finance theatrical activities. It is known that due to budgetary underfunding of theaters and the commercialization of their activities, which caused an inflationary increase in ticket prices, about 30% of the audience experience financial difficulties in attending performances. Students and pensioners “suffer” most of all, which not only worsens the quality of their life but also harms the growth of the theater’s audience. Based on the construction of the econometric model, recommendations were formulated, aimed at creating conditions for the complete realization of theatrical potential and an increase in attendance.</p> Alexander Rubinstein Copyright (c) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 22 3 150 173 Tomorrow 3.0: Transaction Costs and the Sharing Economy (an excerpt) <p>According to Michael Munger, there is some evidence of the Third Great Economic Revolution, which can be traced within two dimensions: the sharing economy and the brokerage economy. Although in many industries, these two dimensions are far from each other, in some spheres where they interact, their intersection results in extending the new economy. In his book, Prof. Munger describes the features of the sharing economy; entrepreneurship is oriented toward cuts of transactional expenses rather than production expenses, use of new basic program tools, a business running with the help of mobile intellectual equipment, and an internet connection. In turn, the emergence of a brokerage economy results from skills used to sell cuts of transactional costs, opening new opportunities for mutually gained exchanges that have not yet been perceived as commercial. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the first chapter, “The World of Tomorrow 3.0,” where the author describes key features of the new economy resulting from the Third Great Economic Revolution. It means that innovations with the usage of digital technologies come to the fore, allowing more intensive usage of durable goods and reducing the total number of circulated goods. As a result, the human experience turns out to be more important than the obtained things, thus changing the idea of private property dramatically.</p> Michael C. Munger Copyright (c) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 22 3 74 97 Trust vs. Disorientation: Economy of the Russian-Speaking ‘Migrant’ Groups in Social Media (The Case of VKontakte) <p>The article discusses the economic practices presented in the “migrant” groups in the social network VKontakte. “Migrant” groups refer to groups positioned as communication platforms for migrants, which is reflected either in the name of the group (for example, “migrant bulletin”) or mentioned in its description. “Migrant” groups are quite a common phenomenon; almost every major Russian city has digital communities that position themselves as platforms for discussing migration issues. Social media plays an important role in migration processes, acting as a tool to minimize the information deficit as one of the effective mechanisms of integration. One of the key functions of “migrant” social media is seen as partial compensation for the deficit of social capital in the host country, therefore-minimizing the costs and risks associated with a particular stage of the migration process. At the same time, Russian-speaking “migrant” digital communities rarely come into the research field. In this regard, the question arises: do “migrant” sites in Russian social networks perform the same functions? Is it possible to talk about the existence of a “migrant” economy in the Russian-speaking digital media, and what does it represent? Is it possible, in principle, to expect to extract from Russian-language “migrant” sites any valuable information about the economic activity of migrants, given all the difficulties associated with qualitative research of digital communities? The search for answers to these questions was the purpose of this study. Forty Russian-speaking groups in the social network VKontakte were selected and positioned as “migrant” and at the same time, “live,” containing user dialogues in open access. Next, the search and analysis of messages containing mentions of purchase and sale, exchange, rent, donations of various types, services, and information were carried out. As a result, it was possible to construct several summaries. In particular, the “migrant” economy in VKontakte can be divided into two categories: the economy for migrants, and the economy on migrants. Both are linked to a lack of information and social capital. In the first group, we attributed the practice of freely providing their information and services that allow us to eliminate this deficit or partially reduce its cost. The second group included practices that exploit the lack of social capital of migrants, such as paid legal services, trade in documents, involvement in alternative integration, and — often associated with illegal activities — integration trajectories.</p> Dmitriy Timoshkin Copyright (c) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 22 3 53 73 Official (Biomedical) Obstetrics and Alternative (Home) Midwifery: Formalized and Informal Interaction Practices <p>The article discusses the interaction practices between the formal system of obstetric aid and alternative (home) midwifery, which together constitute a continuum of formal and informal in the sphere of medical services. For the analysis of these practices, I turn to critical medical anthropology and such important concepts for this research area as resistance to medicalization and medical pluralism. I also rely on the social studies of public health that regard it as an organizational field in which different types of institutional logics compete and come into the conflict: professional, state (or bureaucratic), and managerial.<br>In the first part of the article, I show that the care in a home birth can be provided by both amateur midwives and certified medical specialists, such as obstetrician-gynecologists and midwives of the maternity hospitals, although in Russia, this activity qualifies as illegal. In the second part of the article, I discuss how, as a result of the conflict of institutional logics reinforced by several waves of health care reforms, various options have emerged for the formalized interaction of home midwives with maternity hospitals. At present, the most common practice is the part-time employment of midwives in the commercial departments of state maternity hospitals. The third part of the article is devoted to the analysis of the informal interaction of domestic midwives with maternity hospitals. I show that these practices arise in place of serious institutional gaps in the system and represent attempts to organize natural childbirth within the framework of the free-of-charge state medicine. In general, it can be argued that the dominant biomedical models of obstetric care and alternative midwifery do not exist in isolation from each other, but instead create complex and contradictory relationships of cooperation, confrontation, and competition. The study is based on in-depth interviews with home midwives, obstetrician-gynecologists and midwives working in maternity hospitals, as well as with women with home birth experience.</p> Anna Ozhiganova Copyright (c) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 22 3 28 52 Editor's Foreword <p>.</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2019-11-30 2019-11-30 22 3 7 10 XXI April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development, April 6 –10, 2020, Moscow <p>On April 6–10, 2020 in Moscow, National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE Univer-sity), with the support of the World Bank, will be hosting the XXI April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development. The Conference’s Programme Committee will be chaired by Professor Evgeny Yasin, HSE University’s academic supervisor.T he Conference features a diverse agenda concerning social and economic development in Russia. The Conference programme will include presentations by Russian and international academics, roundtables and plenary sessions with participation of members of the Government of the Russian Federation, government officials, business representatives, and leading Russian and foreign experts.</p> Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 22 3 153 153 The Future We Create: Fictional Expectations as a Tool of Social Dynamics <p>This paper is a review of Imagined Futures: Fictional Expectations and Capitalist Dynamics, written by Jens Beckert and published in 2016. Prof. Beckert leads the Max-Plank Institute for the Study of Societies in Cologne. His works are in the fields of new economic sociology, economic anthropology and valuation studies. The last approach largely owes its existence to Beckertian theorizing. Imagined Futures highlights temporal perception in capitalist societies and the role of future expectations in the processes of capitalist dynamics. Beckertian theses also justify the importance of valuation studies and revise the role of economic forecasts. According to his central idea, economic forecasts cannot provide reliable future predictions due to the ontological uncertainty described by economic theory itself. Instead of looking into the future, the main function of forecasts is posited to be the coordination of social actions. The reduction of uncertainty provided by economic forecasts is essential for effective market function and the stability of social dynamics. This review proposes an interpretation of the theories outlined in the book and seeks to emphasize the importance of the author’s conclusions for valuation studies, new economic sociology and especially for studying the performative side of economic theory. The first part of the paper suggests the deeper historical roots of Imagined Futures. Next, the alternative philosophical frame for fictional expectations is discussed, and a systematization of fictional expectations is proposed. The paper’s second part problematizes capitalistic production and consumption described by Beckert as the foundation of the modern social order. Additionally, an ontological sense of future planning and capitalist dynamics is introduced in the context of symbolic consumption. The paper finishes by describing another aspects of performativity made by models of economic theory.</p> Boris Belyavskiy Copyright (c) 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 22 3 142 152 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-4-142-152 Flexible Organizational Structure and Typology of the Informal Small Entrepreneurship in Russia <p>In this article, based on relevant domestic and foreign literature, the institutional (i.e., “narrower”) approach to the definition of informal entrepreneurship and the informal entrepreneurial activity are substantiated, and an analysis of their causes and practices in the conditions of modern Russia is delivered. Using data from the panel study of start-ups and small entrepreneurs conducted by the author (Moscow, 2013–2015), the paper addresses the following issues: (1) Are there any differences in the nature of ownership relations in those businesses that are partially or primarily informally led, from the classical property relations in entrepreneurial firms described in academic literature? (2) What are the types of SMEs, and why are those that use informal practices more common? (3) What role does interaction with State control and law enforcement bodies play in decision making of entrepreneurs as to whether to operate informally, and what are the possible alternatives? (4) What are the comparative advantages and risks/constraints of informal entrepreneurship? (5) Is there entrepreneurial motivation and the inclination for informal kinds of activity in the business and, if so, how? The main evidence of the article consists in the following: an important reason for the informality in micro and small businesses is a diffuse structure of property relations, which is a hybrid (mixed) form of a market and firm. An own typology of entrepreneurs is invented, based on various combinations of entrepreneurial motivation and levels of formalization of the latter. As a result, four ideal types of entrepreneurs are introduced, namely “stars,” “non-routine entrepreneurs,” “simpletons,” and “marginals.” The two latter are the main actors of the informal entrepreneurial activity of legally registered businesses and totally informal entrepreneurship, respectively. In conclusion, there are some practical recommendations formulated on opportunities to reduce informal entrepreneurial practices, based, among others, on the understanding of the differences between the aforementioned ideal types of entrepreneurs.</p> Alexander Chepurenko Copyright (c) 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 22 3 39 69 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-4-39-69 Ovsey Shkaratan (1931–2019) <p>Professor Shkaratan, who passed away on July 31, 2019, was a professor emeritus of the Higher School of Economics, head of the Laboratory of Comparative Analysis of Post-Socialist Societies (National Research University Higher School of Economics), as well as founder and editor-in-chief of the journal Universe of Russia.</p> Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 22 3 13 13 Ovsey Shkaratan (1931–2019) <p>Professor Shkaratan, who passed away on July 31, 2019, was a professor emeritus of the Higher School of Economics, head of the Laboratory of Comparative Analysis of Post-Socialist Societies (National Research University Higher School of Economics), as well as founder and editor-in-chief of the journal Universe of Russia.</p> Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 22 3 141 141 XXI April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development, April 6–10, 2020, Moscow <p>On April 6–10, 2020 in Moscow, National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE Univer-sity), with the support of the World Bank, will be hosting the XXI April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development. The Conference’s Programme Committee will be chaired by Professor Evgeny Yasin, HSE University’s academic supervisor.T he Conference features a diverse agenda concerning social and economic development in Russia. The Conference programme will include presentations by Russian and international academics, roundtables and plenary sessions with participation of members of the Government of the Russian Federation, government officials, business representatives, and leading Russian and foreign experts.</p> Editorial Board Copyright (c) 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 22 3 139 140 Mikolaj Piskorski’s “Social Strategy”: A Recipe for Profiting from Internet Platforms, to Which a Sociologist Has Many Questions <p>Mikolai Piskorski’s book, with a somewhat misleading title (because he is not interested in media at all), offers an approach to analyzing human interaction and evaluating the effectiveness of Internet platforms, with which readers should learn how to use Internet platforms for profit. Human interaction is seen as rational behavior, in terms of benefits and costs—the latter, according to Piskorski, should be reduced by Internet platforms. It is assumed that in return for companies helping people communicate with each other through social platforms, users will be ready to do something for the companies—pay more for their products, or do free work (bring new customers, generate content). Piskorski demonstrates how his approach works, both by analyzing how platforms (for example, Facebook, Twitter, dating applications, LinkedIn) manage to reduce interaction costs and by showing examples of business strategies of different companies (for example, American Express, Nike) that use the platforms. Despite the fact that the book gives the impression of being oriented not only (and, it seems, not so much) to the academic audience, but also to practitioners, it has the ambition to influence economists and sociologists as well. In this regard, the author of the review sees it as her task to look at the work of Piskorski, considering its position in the space of existing social theory in both economics and sociology. Piskorski sees the novelty of his approach in its attention to the social, interactions, and social norms, but Piskorski’s book remains deeply economic in its nature and therefore can be met with classical sociological criticism—reproaches for statements that are too universal and insensitivity to context. These properties of Piskorski’s approach are at times detrimental to the analysis of diverse and extremely interesting data and leave room for critical commentary from the field of Internet research.</p> Oksana Dorofeeva Copyright (c) 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 22 3 126 138 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-4-126-138 Why Should We Pay More Attention to Skills Deployment? <p>In this book, the issues of skills formation and utilization in the system of formal education and in the labor market are discussed. The recent mainstream concepts of skills are critically analyzed alongside the less known, alternative perspectives. The book addresses several myths related to skills formation and deployment. The first one concerns the relationship between skills and wages; the second is about the demand for “soft” skills in the future economy; the third one addresses the growth of high-skilled jobs; and the fourth one looks at supply-led skills policies. In the handbook, the necessity of a paradigmatic shift from skills formation towards their better utilization is discussed across the fields of education sciences, economics, and political studies. Based on the analysis of recent empirical evidence, the authors elaborate the concepts of social construction of skills, “skills ecosystems,” capabilities and skills, and others. The authors compare institutions and skills policies, including the systems of qualifications, in various countries. Still, most of the empirical illustrations and theoretical concepts presented in the book refer rather to the developed market economies, whereas the analysis of the situation in other countries, in particular, in BRICS, is quite limited. Nevertheless, the handbook is without doubt of high interest to the Russian readership, as it is, probably, the first successful attempt to systematize and critically reassess the existing knowledge in the fields of skills formation and utilization.</p> Natalia Karmaeva Copyright (c) 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 22 3 114 125 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-4-114-125 Everyday Mobility of Youth in Small Ural Cities <p>The article discusses practices with regard to the daily mobility of young people in the middle-sized Ural monotowns of Revda and Krasnoturyinsk. Both cities enter the orbits of the agglomerations, one of which is formed around Ekaterinburg, and the other in the north of the region. Similar in size, they are located close to (Revda) and far from (Krasnoturyinsk) the regional center. The population of Revda is growing, and that of Krasnoturyinsk, on the contrary, is decreasing. Practices with regard to the daily mobility of the population of these cities depend on the existing transport network, various deficits, and information resources. We are interested in two expressions of everyday transport mobility: internal and external. Mobility practices develop in trajectories and routes that become elements of urban spaces and fill the territory’s transport infrastructure, giving it social significance and a kind of “weight,” depending on who actualizes these trajectories and how often. The focus of the study is the experience of young citizens, because it is they who, firstly, broadcast the assessments of the transport situation in the city; secondly, they actively move around the city both with parents/relatives and with friends or alone; thirdly, it is the young people, especially after graduation, that create the flow of outgoing mobility. During 2018, 60 individual semiformalized interviews with experts and residents of the studied cities and 11 group discussions among high school students and college students (224 participants) using drawing techniques constituted the empirical basis of the study. The attractiveness for young people of such territories as Revda and Krasnoturinsk is largely based on the diversity of places and the ability to give existing ones new meanings. The results of the study show that the space of their town is considered to be mastered and well-known by young people, which increases interest in other, less familiar territories. The expansion of mobility opportunities in the format of agglomerations does not contribute to the intention of schoolchildren to return to their hometown after receiving a vocational education, which creates a problem in providing enterprises with highly qualified personnel. Thus, the development of the daily mobility of youths is not an opposition to territorial rootedness and affection, but creates new challenges for the development of a local, regional, and interregional labor market.</p> Natalya Veselkova Mikhail Vandyshev Elena Pryamikova Anna Danilova Copyright (c) 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 22 3 78 113 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-4-78-113 Will the Gig Economy Prevail? <p>The book Will the Gig Economy Prevail? by Prof. Colin Crouch is devoted to the “gig economy,” which is seen as set to gradually replace the costly rigidities of the old-fashioned employment contract. In this book, Colin Crouch takes a step back and questions this logic. He shows how the idea of an employee— a stable status that involves a bundle of rights—has maintained a curious persistence. Examining the ways companies are attacking these rights, from proffering temporary work to involuntary part-time work to “gigging,” he reveals the paradoxes of the situation and argues that it should not and cannot continue. He goes on to propose reforms to reverse the perverse incentives that reward irresponsible employers and punish good ones, setting out an agenda for a realistic future of secure work. The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the first chapter—“The Rise of Precarious Work”—in which the author considers the notion of the “gig economy” and issues associated with its expansion. It also describes the structure of this book.</p> Colin Crouch Copyright (c) 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 22 3 70 77 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-4-70-77 To be the Flagship Journal of Russian Sociology: When the Mission Matters <p>The article focuses on the review process employed by academic journals from the perspective of the sociology of organization. We propose a scheme that takes into consideration what is more important for editorial boards (legitimacy or effectiveness) and how they confirm their legitimacy claims (through outputs in the form of papers or through procedures). The conceptual advantage of the scheme is illustrated by the case study of the journal, Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya (Sociological Studies), for the period from 1992 till 2011. Based on an analysis of the journal headings (491 cases of headings and 1230 published papers) and 8 interviews with editors, it is shown that the main task of the editorial board is to represent the discipline in all its diversity through the structural divisions of the journal space and the wide geographical coverage of the authors. Accomplishing this mission of representation in a situation with scarce resources can be maintained only through a special editorial style of the journal, which differs from the obligatory double-blind peer reviewing of all manuscripts submitted. When the editorial office has clear tasks related to the content of the journal, the most appropriate form is the network form of governance because external peer reviews make it difficult to fill journal space. In the acquisition of manuscripts, a network search is combined with the incoming submissions; the crucial role in decision-making belongs to the editor-in-chief. These practices diminish the quality of published manuscripts that are selected for publication in the journal. We explain how less control of editorial practices through the efforts of editors confirm a journal’s claim to fulfill its mission.</p> Katerina Guba Copyright (c) 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 22 3 14 38 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-4-14-38 Editor's Foreword <p><em><span lang="EN-US">Detailed description in the text</span></em></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2019-09-30 2019-09-30 22 3 9 12 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-4-9-12 Interview with Alena Ledeneva: To Control a Level of Informality You Need the Targeted Therapy of Informal Practices <p>In the interview, Professor Alena Ledeneva talks about her research experience, current projects, and plans. She also presents her creative guidelines for analyzing the informal economy’s worlds with the help of a context-sensitive comparative ethnographic study. Rooted in her PhD written in the mid-1990s on the contribution of blat to the functioning of the Soviet economy, the program today provides the basis for the unique empirical project, “The Global Encyclopedia of Informality,” which attracted the participation of 223 research fellows from different countries. Being publicly opened, the Encyclopedia with a base of cases describes a given informal practice’s national versions, including a list of the most recent sociological and anthropological literature for analyzing that practice. This interview demonstrates how sensitivity to ethnography’s methodological challenges allows the author to move from producing a retrospective study of the local empirical phenomenon to theorizing. The theoretical insights that Professor Ledeneva generates help to evaluate the qualities of liberal reforms, including anti-corruption policies. She shows that when the façade of formal institutions is invisibly based on rigidity and double standards, informal practices contribute to both creating and destroying of social systems. Until the conflict between rules issued from the top and reaction from the bottom is taken into account during social and political transformations, the minimizing of corruption will be difficult. In the interview, Professor Ledeneva shares her research experience and demonstrates how she struggled for validity of the conclusions in her qualitative research through comparisons of empirical evidences from different sources. She also discusses the challenges from her in-depth interviews implying discussions of sensitive topics and how they could be overcome. Particularly, Alena refers to her approach to ethnography of informal economy as a “method of slow cooking.” This interview, however, may produce impressions that Alena’s “field kitchen” tends to be molecular.</p> Alena Ledeneva Copyright (c) 2019-05-31 2019-05-31 22 3 12 24 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-3-12-24 A Rejoinder to a Contemporary Non-Economist: A Comment on a Comment <p>The article is a rejoinder to a critical assessment of Kapeliushnikov’s study on discursive methods used by M. Weber in The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism that was provided by Ivan Zabaev in his recently published article, “A Nietzschean Take on a Hundred-Dollar Bill: Reading Weber’s ‘Protestant Ethic’: in Connection with a Contemporary Economist’s Comments.” Kapeliushnikov demonstrates that Zabaev’s attempt to view The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism as a treatise on ethics rather than as a scientific study is not justified, and that Weber himself would hardly approve such a moralistic approach. The tendency to substitute a substantive discussion for a manipulation with words is also without merit. For instance, Zabaev’s suggestion that for Weber the German words Gewinn and Erwerb had a diametrically opposite sense is quite absurd. Kapeliushnikov’s commentary pays special attention to Zabaev’s attempts to interpret Weber’s study through a lens of Nietzschean ideas. Paradoxically, this approach has led Zabaev to unequivocally anti-Weberian conclusions. In particular, this Nietzschean interpretation of a famous metaphor of “a steel shell” gets a meaning that is completely at variance with its original conception. Kapeliushnikov concludes that a traditional approach when The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism is seen as a study on economic history or historical sociology rather than as a treatise on ethics is more correct and does not engender numerous aberrations that Zabaev was not capable of avoiding.</p> Rostislav Kapeliushnikov Copyright (c) 2019-05-31 2019-05-31 22 3 185 205 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-3-185-205 Исламские финансы. Репортаж с XX Апрельской международной научной конференции по проблемам развития экономики и общества, 9–12 апреля 2019 г., Москва, Россия <p>Traditionally, the XXth April International Academic Conference on Economic and Social Development has been organized at the Higher School of Economics. On the 11th of April 2019, Sheikh Muhammad Taqi Usmani (Darul Uloom Krachi) made an honorary report about Islamic finance in the 21st century. The Sheikh is one of the leading experts of Islamic law, economics, and finance, and he ranks 6th in the “The World’s 500 Most Influential Muslims 2019” [Schleifer 2019]. He currently leads the International Shariah Council for the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions. As a part of his speech, he touched on some aspects related to Islamic finance and its distinctive features. The report also provided an introduction to the functioning of Islamic finance. The Sheikh explained the meaning of the concept as well as its basis, referring to the principles of the Koran. Then he highlighted the main aspect related to Islamic finance—the prohibition of collecting interest. This rule applies not only to Islamic organizations and banks, but also to self-employed entrepreneurs and individuals. Among other things, the speaker touched on the role of Islamic finance during the crisis, demonstrating the positive aspects of the system for both Muslims and people of other faiths.</p> Shushanik Dzhangiryan Copyright (c) 2019-05-31 2019-05-31 22 3 180 184 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-3-180-184 Nick Srnicek’s Platform Capitalism: Crisis — Response — Boom — Crisis — and Response Again. What Do We Know about the Digital Economy? <p>Nick Srnicek writes a convincing history of the modern digital economy, which has managed to develop numerous myths, hoaxes, and prescientific interpretations. Critical reconstruction of the events that preceded the birth and explosive growth of the digital technologies and products market, on the one hand, avoids their perception and understanding in the self-evident logic of the field (market), and on the other hand, provides an opportunity to perceive the future of digital capitalism. Srnicek is consistently detached from an optimistic view of the economy of the recent past and the near future. However, his argument does not involve discussions between “technopessimists” and “technoptimists,” rather Srnicek analyzes the digital economy and the model of platforms in the logic of a capitalist mode of production and a ruthless competitive race. Its intrinsic logic determines the sequence of economic agents’ actions and the possible image of the future. The crisis dynamics of capitalism of the last decades provide limited space for historical maneuvering and less and less space for political action, so any normative statements mostly lose their power. The analysis focuses on the business model of platforms from the perspective of the historical logic of capitalism aimed at seeking a new source of profitability in the condition of market exhaustion. This condition leads to a redefinition of PO the key categories of perception of the role of technologies in everyday life and in the scale of the economic system in terms of political economy. The reviewer gives a patient exposition of the basic concepts of the book and the theses on which Srnicek’s analysis is based. The text is mainly focused on the reconstruction of the main point of the book but also appeals to an important author for Srnicek, the historian Robert Brenner. The review concludes with a modest critical commentary on the book and a call for a Russian-language discussion of the book, which has already become very influential abroad.</p> David Khumaryan Copyright (c) 2019-05-31 2019-05-31 22 3 164 179 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-3-164-179 The Effects of Social Network on Fertility: The Case of Large Families in Russia <p>The article attempts to answer the question: “How do large families appear in the contemporary world despite economic, social, and institutional constraints?” The study’s thesis focuses on the meso-level (social ties) in the research of processes of fertility. Results show that the typology of mechanisms affecting fertility behavior is based on the tradition of family research in the logic of social network analysis; this is relevant and productive for family studies. The analysis of 25 in-depth interviews with parents from large families reveals several conclusions about the functioning of the mechanisms affecting fertility behavior in the context of modern Russia. The interviews were conducted in Arkhangelsk, Moscow, Moscow region, and Vladimir region and were analyzed according to the Grounded Theory methodology. Data analysis showed that such processes as social contagion, social pressure, social learning, and social support expand the possibilities for a transition to a family with many children. Large families exist in a specific context, formed by the intersection of social ties, which include both existing contacts (kinship, friendship, parish) and emerging contacts on the basis of public organizations (e.g., centers of children’s creativity or family associations). In addition, a large family may become a generator of social capital, reciprocity, and trust in society. The data present fertility as a process embedded in social networks, offer a number of answers to the question “How do social networks influence fertility in large families?”, as well as identify perspectives for further research.</p> Mariia Goleva Copyright (c) 2019-05-31 2019-05-31 22 3 136 163 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-3-136-163 The Role of Family as a Channel of Intergenerational Transmission of Volunteer Traditions in Contemporary Russia <p>The paper focuses on the role of family in forming the consistency of volunteering traditions in contemporary Russia. The paper investigated the correlation between parental volunteering and the current volunteering of their children. International studies indicate that family impact on children’s attitude towards volunteering is a significant channel of intergenerational transmission of prosocial behavioral patterns. One of the viewpoints that draws on the social learning theory (A. Bandura), posits that children model their prosocial behavior, such as volunteering, on the direct example of their parents. Another viewpoint pertaining to the resource theory links the transmission of volunteerism with the transmission of parental social status. Social status transmission can be accompanied by normative pressure since a higher socio-economic status is associated with unpaid voluntary contribution for the benefit of society. The key hypothesis of the research proposes that in Russia, where volunteerism still has not taken root as a sociocultural norm and is not associated with the transmission of social status, the transmission of volunteerism is mostly due to direct family influence and is particularly due to the influence of parental volunteering. The paper presents the results of the All-Russia Representative Survey, which confirm the above hypothesis. Using a linear probability model and the logit model, we show that in Russia, active parental volunteering is likely to be strongly and significantly associated with the respondents’ current volunteering. The results demonstrate stability with the change of the model specification and a set of control variables. The paper has important practical implications for nonprofit organizations on how to engage volunteers of different generations by developing family volunteer programs. Such programs could facilitate early motivation of children to volunteer through direct observation and modeling of parental prosocial behavior.</p> Irina Mersianova Dmitri Malakhov Natalya Ivanova Copyright (c) 2019-05-31 2019-05-31 22 3 66 89 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-3-66-89 Social Factors of Contractor Selection on Freelance Online Marketplace: Study of Contests Using “Big Data” <p>E-markets are online trading platforms designed to improve efficiency of interactions between sellers and buyers of goods and services. E-markets have become a fundamental organizational innovation in the information era. One example is freelance online marketplaces (online labor markets) that allow self-employed professionals (freelancers) and their clients to quickly and cost-effectively find each other anywhere in the world. Online labor markets substantially change the employment landscape and labor relations, actualizing the task of exploring contractual practices and mechanisms introduced by them. Similar to other websites, online labor markets record huge amounts of diverse information about the users and their actions. Utilizing such “big data,” we conducted research using factors that enable freelancers to win employment contests. The contest is one of the most popular mechanisms of freelancer selection, implying an open competition between all the candidates who perform the task set up by the competition organizer who finally determines a winner and pays a remuneration. The study uses open data on contests held from November 2009 to November 2018 on the largest Russianlanguage online marketplace. Data were collected automatically using a web scraping technique. The final sample consists of 6,169 contests, in which 335,613 freelancers took part, and the number of unique participants was 45,174 persons. The study results indicate the absence of persistent discrimination on the basis of socio-demographic characteristics. The results also revealed the important role of formalized reputation (embodied in ratings and reviews) and communication between the freelancer and the employer (in the form of mutual comments) that increase the chances of a freelancer winning a contest. The paper also discusses methodological issues that arise when working with “big data.” In general, this study of contests on freelance online marketplaces leads to the understanding of the role of social factors in the functioning of the new electronic economy based on “big data” generated by this economy.</p> Denis Strebkov Andrey Shevchuk Anastasia Lukina Ekaterina Melianova Alexey Tyulupo Copyright (c) 2019-05-31 2019-05-31 22 3 25 65 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-3-25-65 Editor's Foreword <p><em>Detailed description in the text</em></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2019-05-31 2019-05-31 22 3 7 11 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-3-7-11 Interview with Bruce G. Carruthers. Brexit, Bitcoin, Big Data: How Historical Analysis Helps Shed Light on What the Future Holds <p>During the first part of the conversation, Bruce Carruthers reflects upon the structural differences between European and North American academic settings and between sociological departments and business schools, considering graduate training and further ascending up the career ladder. He elaborates on his current research, a historical study of credit and credit decision-making in the United States in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but he also works on corporate social responsibility and taxation and the adoption of “business like” characteristics by US museums. Carruthers points out that working at a bunch of intersections between different branches of sociology allows him to be intellectually inclusive in his work. He shares his personal recipe for economic sociology. According to him, a good economic sociologist has to be curious about the economy and willing to do additional work and go beyond his or her sociological training to become knowledgeable in economic phenomena. Taking advantage of communication with colleagues from other fields of knowledge may also contribute to a good practice of conducting an economic sociological study. Speculating about the future of credit relations, Carruthers suggests that dystopian sci-fi TV shows pose some relevant issues to credit scoring. The combination of how widely the information can circulate and what the individual scores are based on provoke governmentality fears about ratings and rankings. As he puts it, the developing Chinese social credit system, which involves almost no privacy in relation to the State, may be nerve-racking if it gets full expression—quite the opposite future Carruthers predicts for the peer-to-peer platforms that promised to challenge the financial market. Once the promotional hype is over, as he points out, big financial institutions will likely take over the successful platforms, and tech platforms could do the business of intermediation may pop up. With respect to promising topics in sociology, Carruthers recommends directing our attention toward the incorporation of big data into research and the expansion of big data analysis skills, as the future of economic sociological research lies therein.</p> Bruce G. Carruthers Copyright (c) 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 22 3 194 206 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-2-194-206 Straw Mills of Russian Sociological Expertise <p>The article corresponds to Nikolai Babich’s detailed remarks about the paper “Criticism of the Survey Approach for Analyzing the Mutual Similarity in the Appearance of Consumer Products Within One Product Category,” published in the Journal of Economic Sociology (2018, vol. 19, no 2, pp. 86–117). The author outlines the basic problems of the current sociological expert evaluation in Russia and proposes options for methodological work aimed at adopting experience from the established contractual procedure for the verification of scientific truth. This article presents some criticism of methods and procedures applied in the field of sociological expert evaluation which turned out to be closed and non-public in Russia. This sociological field has some notable features, including uncritical attitudes toward what and how expert evaluations are produced, uncertainty in the usage of methods, ignorance of international research experience and the non-transparency of methodology and tools. For solving the mentioned problems which the Russian sociological expertise meets, Dmitry Rogozin proposes that sociologists be more active in three directions: 1) conducting a cognitive analysis of survey toolkits embedded in court practice; 2) reconstructing experimental plans with an analysis of applied samplings; and 3) organizing institutional reviews of sociological expert evaluations.</p> Dmitry Rogozin Copyright (c) 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 22 3 173 182 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-2-173-182 Conference at Saint Tikhon’s Orthodox University “Digitalization of Society and the Future of Christianity” <p>The conference “Digitalization of Society and the Future of Christianity” was held at St. Tikhon's Orthodox Humanitarian University. Digital technologies are now rapidly becoming a part of society, exerting an active influence on social processes. Different researchers describe this transformation of social reality in different ways, such as “The Fourth Industrial Revolution” (Klaus Schwab) or “technological singularity” (Ray Kurzweil). However, we must focus not just on the “sum of technologies” but, above all, on how these changes morph our perception of society and how they affect the economy and politics. The development of digitalization has its advantages — for example, an increase in productivity — and risks, such as the reduction of jobs for both workers and highly qualified employees. At the same time, there exists another important question: how can we assess digitalization from a spiritual and moral point of view? How does it affect the individual and suppress his or her freedom? In a recent interview, Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and all Russia noted the danger of gadgets that“provide not just access to personal information but its use.” The danger of using personal data, noted by Patriarch Kirill, is only one aspect of digitalization. Attempts to use biometrics, the development of robotics, 3D printing, augmented reality and several other technologies raise further questions. The conference also touched upon the development of legislative initiatives in relation to the process of digitalization. We discussed the development of draft laws relating to a number of modern digital technologies as well as the creation of a favorable legal environment for our country to gain a competitive advantage in the international digital market. The international conference “Digitalization of Society and the Future of Christianity” will be held annually at St. Tikhon's Orthodox Humanitarian University.</p> Igor Ryazantcev Vasiliy Pisarevskiy Copyright (c) 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 22 3 166 172 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-2-166-172 The Mechanics of Social Exclusion: An Ethnographic Critique of the American Capitalism <p>This book changed the views of the scientific community and ordinary Americans about the urban poor and won the author recognition among the left, closing the door to the camp of neo-liberals and earning him a promotion to an academic position at Harvard University. However, the main effect was that this book and others by S. Venkatesh, written in the style of the new ethnography, raise the degree of public, scientific and political discussion about racial discrimination and what kind of model of American capitalism was acquired by the end of the twentieth century. Showing the close relationship between social exclusion, poverty and crime, Gang Leader for the Day: A Rogue Sociologist Takes to the Streets reveals the hypocrisy of the slogans about equality of opportunity and the perfection of American capitalism. Why does social policy fail in American cities? How exactly does the institutional structure of the capitalist economy and American democracy contribute to the social exclusion of the black population? Why did the mass construction of the ghetto not solve any of the problems that were designated by the initiators of the American project? Asking these and other questions, the author comes to disappointing conclusions. The combination of structural restrictions and cultural experience leads to the fact that ghetto residents develop social relations, follow those behaviors that marginalize their neighborhoods and nullify the chances of success for present and future generations. Formally, this work is difficult to attribute to a scientific monograph. However, researchers of a broad humanitarian profile should pay attention to it. In addition to a rich description of a closed community, the book gives a deep understanding of what constitutes ethnographic and narrative turns in modern-day sociology. This book review begins with a description of the genre’s originality and the differences between the presented book and classical academic studies. Then, we discuss how, due to the rejection of the academic mainstream, S. Venkatesh demonstrates the productivity of innovative ethnography in studies of marginality. To acquaint the Russian audience with the enormous contribution that sociologist S. Venkatesh made to the development of modern Western ethnography, his first and, so far, only book translated into Russian is compared with his earlier monograph. It is carried out in strict accordance with the academic canon and contains a deep analysis of the socioeconomic deprivation of black ghettos within the context of the American model of neoliberal capitalism. The text of this article concludes with a discussion about how Gang Leader for the Day simultaneously reflects an ethnographic and narrative turn that occurred in the social sciences in the final quarter of the last century.</p> Maria Sakaeva Copyright (c) 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 22 3 154 165 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-2-154-165 Participation in Adult Education: Russia in Comparison with OECD Countries <p>The transfer of knowledge and skills is a key social process that supports the functioning of all social institutions, including the economy. Existing research shows that the participation of adults in education throughout their lives has noticeable consequences for wealth, social wellbeing, state of health and cognitive abilities. The learnability of adults provides an additional resource for the economy, which increases its resistance and adaptability during a crisis, allows institutional development and provides an increase of human capital during economic growth. In this paper, we analyze the involvement of adults in education and estimate the effectiveness of adult educational practices in Russia in comparison with OECD countries. The analysis is based on the data of the Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competences (PIAAC). It is shown that adult learners in Russia demonstrate the same level of measured competences (in reading and math) as those who are not involved in any educational activities. The results are quite different for OECD countries. At the same time, we observe dissimilar models of participation of adults in education in Russia and OECD countries. In the latter countries, there is a “supportive” role of adult education, in which a learner has a strong career, income and social wellbeing, while in Russia a “crisis” model is common for those adults involved in formal education.</p> Natalia Voronina Dmitry Popov Copyright (c) 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 22 3 122 153 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-2-122-153 Buying Time. The Delayed Crisis of Democratic Capitalism <p>The outstanding German economic sociologist Wolfgang Streeck analyzes sources for recent fiscal, tax and economic crises, considering them as parts of the long-lasting neoliberal transformation of post-war capitalism, which started in the 1970s. Addressing the proposed crisis theories, the author discusses the subsequent contradictions and conflicts between states, governments, voters and capitalistic interests—a process of shifting the main attention from taxation through debt to budget consolidation within the European system of states. At the end of the study, he considers some perspectives on how social economic stability can be achieved again. The Journal of Economic Sociology has published some excerpts from the first chapter, “From Legitimation Crisis to Fiscal Crisis,” in which the author briefly reviews the interconnections between the financial crisis, the crisis of the tax system, and the crisis of growth. The author explains why the stratagem of these interconnections refers to an impossible riddle for any anti-crisis management as well as for politicians. Finally, the author tries to find an answer to the question of why crisis theories of the 1970s, having claimed that a legitimation crisis was coming, turned out to be unprepared to face the social trends which rejected all their predictions.</p> Andrei Vernikov Copyright (c) 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 22 3 104 121 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-2-104-121 Buying Time. The Delayed Crisis of Democratic Capitalism <p style="font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPS;">The outstanding German economic sociologist Wolfgang Streeck analyzes sources for recent fiscal, tax and economic crises, considering them as parts of the long-lasting neoliberal transformation of post-war capitalism, which started in the 1970s. Addressing the proposed crisis theories, the author discusses the subsequent contradictions and conflicts between states, governments, voters and capitalistic interests—a process of shifting the main attention from taxation through debt to budget consolidation within the European system of states. At the end of the study, he considers some perspectives on how social economic stability can be achieved again. </span></span></span><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The Journal of Economic Sociology has published some excerpts from the first chapter, “From Legitimation Crisis to Fiscal Crisis,” in which the author briefly reviews the interconnections between the financial crisis, the crisis of the tax system, and the crisis of growth. The author explains why the stratagem of these interconnections refers to an impossible riddle for any anti-crisis management as well as for politicians. Finally, the author tries to find an answer to the question of why crisis theories of the 1970s, having claimed that a legitimation crisis was coming, turned out to be unprepared to face the social trends which rejected all their predictions. </span></span></p> Wolfgang Streeck Copyright (c) 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 22 3 86 103 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-2-86-103 Realization of Male and Female Achievement Motives in the Labor Markets across the World <p style="font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPS;">The objective of the paper is to reveal сross-country and gender differences in values and the actualization of three achievement motives across the world: namely, high earnings, career growth and interesting work. Achievement motivation contributes to improving the quality of work and thus contributes to both the growth of the welfare of the worker and the economic growth of the country. In previous studies, it was shown that the achievement motives are more widespread among men, and it is easier for men to put these motives into practice. At the same time, it is expected that in countries with high levels of individualism, GDP per capita and gender equality, women would show more interest toward work and thus have more desire to achieve. In our work, we have tested this hypothesis. The International Social Survey Program (2015) serves as a dataset, and the sample includes the employees. Multi-level logistic regression analysis showed that the motives for high income and career growth are more important for men, while the motive of interesting work is of higher significance for women. However, interesting work is more important for women in almost all countries, whereas higher importance of income and career motivation for men is observed only in some countries. At the same time, the motives for high income and a good career are more attractive to men than women, and there was no gender difference in the realization of the motive for interesting work. Contrary </span>to the initial hypothesis, the gender gap, both in the importance of high income and career growth and in the success of their realization turned out to be higher in countries with high levels of individualism, GDP per capita and gender equality than in less wealthy countries with opposite characteristics. Thus, higher rates of individualism, economic well-being and gender equality do not necessarily lead to the like-mindedness of men and women in achievement motives and the equality of their opportunities in the labor market. </span></span></p> Anita Poplavskaya Natalia Soboleva Copyright (c) 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 22 3 51 85 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-2-51-85 Deaboriginization of Russian Sociological Expertise Industry: Dispute vs. Conquista <p>The article is a rejoinder to Nikolai Babich’s polemical response to our paper “Criticism of the survey approach for analyzing the mutual similarity in the appearance of consumer products within one product category”, published in the Journal of Economic Sociology (2018, vol. 19, no 2, pp. 86–117). Babich named his article “Methodological Reflection in a Pith Helmet” (Journal of Economic Sociology 2019, vol. 20, no 1, pp. 188–196) having thus drawn analogy between scientific criticism and colonial approach that white European colonialists practiced towards the aboriginal population of overseas territories and towards their social institutions. Our replica disputes the validity of using the “Aboriginal” label to the current state of the industry of sociological expertise in Russia as well as the validity of using the complementary term “Colonialist” to designate the colleagues trying to criticize the established research and discursive practices. We also point on the need for more active use of theoretical baggage of classical and modern sociology and sociology of language in the study of visual signs, call for the intensification of scientific dispute based on Mertonian organized skepticism. We develop our criticism in two planes. On the one hand, an attempt is made to deconstruct the colonialist argument as a special case of ad hominem arguments prohibited in the scientific debate. On the other hand, through the prism of these arguments, we once again reconstruct the logic of our approach to the study of similarities and differences in the appearance of FMCG products, based on proven and/or conventional positions of sociological science and sociology of language.</p> Bumagin Roman Copyright (c) 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 22 3 183 193 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-2-183-193 Editor's foreword <div class="page" title="Page 4"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'TimesNewRomanPSMT';">Dear Colleagues, </span></p> <p><span style="font-size: 12.000000pt; font-family: 'TimesNewRomanPSMT';">We introduced a new rubric, “Discussions,” some time ago with some doubts regarding the viability of this venture. However, it has gone quite well so far. In this issue, we have begun publishing the authors’ responses to their critics. We received two substantive replies from Roman Bumagin and Dmitry Rogozin on the critical response to their paper. Rostislav Kapelyushnikov has also submitted an extended reply to one of our recently published critical essays on the legacy of Max Weber. This reply will be prepared for the next issue. </span></p> </div> </div> </div> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 22 3 9 12 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-2-9-12 Personal Income of Spouses in Russian Families’ Budgets in the 1990–2010s <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><span style="font-family: TimesNewRomanPSMT;"><span style="font-size: medium;">The article presents the dynamics of the structure of budgets of Russian households, which differ in the ratio of the contributions of personal incomes and non-individual incomes. Economic relations are considered in matrimonial households in the macroeconomic and social context of the 1990–2010s. Calculations made on the data of the Russian Monitoring of the Economic Situation and Public Health of the National Research University Higher School of Economics (2004–2016) show that during this time the share of “double-income” spousal households increased to 82–83%; the amount of sole financial leadership in the family of both men and women was reduced, but due to the increase in the number of women who combine employment with receiving pensions, the share of families in which women’s incomes are higher than men’s increased. Macroeconomic conditions are reflected in the level of family budgets, and the worst situation was in 1996, which was not defined as crisis in public discourse: only in 45% of families did both spouses have incomes. A similar but less dire situation is observed in 1998: among married couples, 55% had two personal incomes. The declines in real income in 2008–2010 and 2014–2016 are designated as crises, but at the micro level, they had almost no effect on the basis of families with different types of budgets. The presence of only one personal income in the family budget significantly increases the risk of poverty, with the sole financial leadership of men in poor families accounting for 45–50% and with women’s financial leadership at about 70%. The transfer system is poorly insured families in which only a woman contributes to the family budget. </span></span></p> Tatyana Cherkashina Copyright (c) 2019-03-31 2019-03-31 22 3 14 50 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-2-14-50 Methodological Reflection in a Pith Helmet <p>This paper is a polemical response to the article “Criticism of the Interview Approach in Examining the Similarity of the Appearance of Products Belonging to the Same Product Category”, which also appeared in the Journal of Economic Sociology [2018, vol. 19, no 2, pp. 86–117]. In this work, Roman Bumagin and Dmitry Rogozin claim that in trademark similarity research, it is necessary to take into consideration the overall similarity of designs in the same product category. They also criticize the current research practices’ focus on survey methods and call for a fundamental revision of the decision-making process on trademark similarity. While welcoming the attention given to some important subjects (e.g., the need for controls and the background level of similarity), we question the appropriateness of Bumagin and Rogozin’s research procedure and draw attention to the instances of incorrect citations and the distortion of facts in their text. Using specific examples, we show that the arguments proposed in support of the criticism, in fact, illustrate the advantages of current research practices. The procedure actively uses experimental plans and considers the background level of similarity. Our article also asserts, more generally, that to criticize current decision-making in trademarks’ similarity from the perspective of scientism, as Bumagin and Rogozin have done, fails to reflect the specific conditions of arbitration (in a broad sense) authorities. Their goal is not only to establish the truth but also to resolve economic conflicts, and this requires not only a strict but an understandable research procedure. We conclude that hypercriticism in trademark similarity research causes a “colonial” attitude, and it prevents real research practice improvement.</p> Nikolay Babich Copyright (c) 2019-02-03 2019-02-03 22 3 188 196 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-1-188-196 Cultural Consumption in Sociological Research: A Review of Measurement Approaches <p>This review highlights sociological approaches to the definition and measurement of cultural consumption. Studies regarding this issue are based on the supposition that cultural preferences depend on social position and, therefore, reflect social structure. Nevertheless, despite the long history of cultural consumption research and the existence of numerous studies addressing this topic, the notion is still vague. Several approaches may be found in the literature. Cultural consumption is analyzed as a part of lifestyle that is dependent on class structure. This framework is related to the distinction between highbrow and lowbrow activities and tastes, where each set of choices is only relevant for a particular class. Criticism and further development of this approach is related to the reevaluation of both the structure of cultural consumption and the basis for distinction. More recent studies have addressed not only the symbolic value of cultural products but have also looked at the range of cultural preferences and the intensity of cultural activities. Along with this, papers tackling the modes of cultural consumption are also present. However, existing papers vary in terms of employing these approaches. On the one hand, the definitions are different; studies analyze practices, tastes, or experiences. On the other hand, researchers use different variables and scales to measure cultural consumption.</p> Violetta Korsunova Copyright (c) 2019-02-03 2019-02-03 22 3 148 173 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-1-148-173 The Economic Crisis in the Russian Mass Media: Constructing and Deconstructing Problems <p>This article discusses the process of constructing the image of the economic crisis in Russian online newspapers. The relevance of such analysis is due to the increasing audience attention toward economic discussions in the media during the period of economic instability and, accordingly, the increasing influence of the media on the perception of the situation in the country. This paper is based on a constructionist perspective for understanding the nature of social problems. Counter-rhetorical strategies, suggested by Ibarra and Kitsuse, are adopted to analyze the deproblematization of the economic crisis in the Russian mass media. The goal of the study was achieved by conducting a content analysis, which included the count of mentioned key words and a thematic analysis. Moreover, in order to solve one of the tasks, network analysis was used.<br>The study demonstrates that online newspapers pay the most attention to the coverage of anti-Russian sanctions, inflation, and the ruble rate. Meanwhile, social consequences of the crisis, such as poverty and unemployment, are represented in the Russian media to a much lesser extent. The network analysis also shows that online newspapers are focused on the ruble and dollar rates, sanctions, and loans. According to the network agenda-setting theory, these «links» of economic events in publications can form certain associations among the audience regarding the causes, perpetrators, and consequences of the crisis. Thus, inflation could be caused by the weakening of ruble rate, and sanctions could be one of the causes of the crisis. Strategies of economic crisis de-problematization or counter-rhetorical strategies were found only in mass online newspapers. There were both sympathetic (e.g., declaring impotence, perspectivizing) and unsympathetic (e.g., counter-rhetoric of telling the anecdote, counter-rhetoric of insincerity) strategies.</p> Liudmila Bogomazova Copyright (c) 2019-02-03 2019-02-03 22 3 123 147 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-1-123-147 Deliberate By-Catch of the Caspian Seal and the Development of Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) in Dagestan, Russia: A Socio-Economic Approach <p>The paper describes how the deliberate by-catch of the Caspian seals in Dagestan, Russia has given to a rise in illegal wildlife trade (IWT) in the region after the sturgeon population, as the most valuable commodity for local markets, critically declined. The data were derived from using a set of anthropological and sociological methods and approaches, including semistructured interviews (SSIs), focus groups, direct observations reflected in field notes, the life-story approach, and “grounded theory”, based on a study of sturgeon poaching conducted by the author since 2012. Although the author subdivided the local IWT into four stages that cover the coastal, piedmont areas, and highlands of Dagestan, in this article, he deepens the readers’ knowledge of the first two stages of IWT in the coastal areas. For a better understanding of the nature of regional IWT, the notion of an autonomous community is introduced. Several examples have been chosen for description: the inclusion of seals resulting from by-catch in new informal contractual relations between young fishers and boat owners, the illegal taking of the fishers sentenced in Kazakhstan, the ransom for the release of fishers sentenced in Kazakhstan (“Kazakh captivity”), the buying of the seals’ carcasses and skins, its initial processing, and the further resale of skins to craftsmen from the mountainous areas of Dagestan. The author argues that the birth of the IWT in the regions is closely linked to the emergence of the local autonomous resource-extracting community, following the breakup of the USSR, where the Sturgeon Fishing Brigade (SFB; the first stage of IWT) and the seals’ middlemen (the second stage of IWT) play the most important roles as social entities. Autonomous community helps the young fishers of the SFB to perceive illegality as an a priori phenomenon, which was facilitated by the long-term absence of the state as the main regulator of social and economic processes. Hence, there is no sense in considering the dichotomy of “legality-illegality” as a research problem when dealing with IWT as a by-product of the autonomous resource extracting community. Results also show that different types of reciprocity and redistribution serve as the main regulatory tools in conducting economic transactions among parties involved in the coastal and highlands IWT structures. The reciprocal ties are partly based on either reputation (in the case of the middlemen) a moral obligations (in the case of the SFB).</p> Ilya Ermolin Copyright (c) 2019-02-03 2019-02-03 22 3 83 122 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-1-83-122 How Organizations are Talked into Existence: <p>Czarniawska’s book may seem to be quite a challenge for several reasons: the author's trademark “crossing genre boundaries” requires a reader to pay attention and stay confident; the outward simplicity of narrating organizational change stands on sophisticated philosophical, sociological, and philological grounds; and the language is eclectic but brilliantly puts together new empirically grounded and older, well-known theoretical concepts. Czarniawska tells a story of the Swedish public sector’s reorganization with the accuracy of an academic and the eloquence of a narrator—institutions become apparent in their activities, as they are based on action, which is depicted by the coined term action nets. In a sense, the reader should be attentive and “follow the words”. Though imagination is also a precondition, as the light but solid and convincing narrative constructions are open to further “translation” (in a hermeneutic and actor-network sense).<br>Narrative knowledge and its metaphors make it much more productive for work with essential organizational paradoxes. Czarniawska points out that a narrative approach can help new institutionalism reflect on its own limitations and better understand institutional building. With a focus on verbal and written communication as well as employees’ stories, we can trace how institutionalized thought structures, which are responsible for the repertoire of possible actions and shared perceptions among organization participants, are formed.<br>The book is well written and pleasant for thoughtful reading in both its theoretical and empirical parts. The stories and serials of the Swedish public sector raise important questions of company-ization, technologyization, and rethinking organizational identity. “Narrating the Organization” can also offer some interesting methodological approaches and explanations for why and how stories “work” due to the modern trend of storytelling. The author openly invites her audience into a dialogue and joint-narrative creativity; the only task of the reader is merely to open the book.</p> Elena Gudova Copyright (c) 2019-02-03 2019-02-03 22 3 174 187 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-1-174-187 Platform Capitalism (excerpts) <p>This book discusses the transformation of firms into platforms—companies providing software and hardware products to others—that has occurred in many economic sectors. This massive transformation resulted from switching capitalism into data, considering them as a source for economic growth and resilience. Changes in digital technologies contributed much to the relationships between companies and their workers, clients, and other capitalists, who increasingly began to rely on data. Dr. Nick Srnicek critically reviews “platform capitalism”, putting new forms of the business model into the context of economic history, tracing their evolution from the long downturn of the 1970s to the economic boom of the 1990s and to the consequences of the 2008 financial crisis. The author demonstrates that the global economy was re-divided among a few of the monopolistic platforms and shows how these platforms set up new internal trends for the development of capitalism.<br>The Journal of Economic Sociology further publishes some excerpts from the second chapter, which is named “Platform Capitalism” after the title of the book. This chapter is an attempt to provide clarity to various ongoing discussions in the new world, as it lays out a typology (i.e., cloud platforms, advertising platforms, lean platforms, industrial platforms, and product platforms) and the genesis of platforms.</p> Nick Srnicek Maria Dobryakova Copyright (c) 2019-02-02 2019-02-02 22 3 72 82 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-1-72-82 A Nietzschean Take on a Hundred-Dollar Bill: Reading Weber’s “Protestant Ethic” in Connection with a Contemporary Economist’s Comments <p>‘Weber’s Hypnosis’ by HSE Professor Rostislav Kapeliushnikov [Kapeliushnikov 2018a: 25–49; Kapeliushnikov 2018b: 12–42] was a point of departure for writing this article. Answering to the examination of Weber’s text by a contemporary economist, the author finds it necessary to discuss the ethical component of “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” in detail. The article draws special attention to the use of the ethical variable there as well as its values: the calling and the humility (also, the ressentiment). The author says that for Weber, it is important to understand where the new type of thinking comes from, the one that concentrates the entirety of life around work (e.g., business, acquisition). The pursuit of acquisition loses the religious and ethical content, but the concept of professional duty remains. According to Weber, this evolution will result in the appearance of the last man—a soulless person locked inside his profession. The author shows that Weber’s interpretation of the Protestant doctrines, where the aim of work is to “get rid of the fear of damnation”, is parallel to the Nietzschean idea of the unpleasant role of “the blessings of work”.<br>In order to answer the critics’ questions, the author discusses the problems of the spirit of capitalism, as it is described in the “Protestant Ethic”. Some of the components of this spirit are described, such as the calling (Beruf), acquisition (Erwerb), and duty (Pflicht). The spirit of capitalism is differentiated from gain, and the connection between the notion of capitalism and that of economic growth is examined; fragments of texts by B. Franklin and D. Defoe, which served as a prototype for Weber for the spirit of capitalism, are analyzed. In the end, the author shares thoughts on how Weber’s logic can be applied to analyzing contemporary reality, what questions it lets one raise, and why the text that, according to Professor R. Kapeliushnikov, is a myth that has no connection to reality, is still read today.</p> Ivan Zabaev Copyright (c) 2019-02-02 2019-02-02 22 3 20 71 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-1-20-71 Interview with Tatiana Karabchuk. International Comparisons, Social Impacts of Labor Instability, and the Secrets of Academic Happiness <p>Tatiana Karabchuk, Assistant Professor of the College of Humanities and Social Sciences of the United Arab Emirates University, was interviewed by Elena Berdysheva, Senior Research Fellow at the Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology at the National Research University Higher School of Economics, in November 2018. The interview mainly focused on Karabchuk’s research interests and rich work experience at different universities around the world, emphasizing the differences in the academic infrastructures. Dr. Karabchuk highlights the shift toward international comparisons of studies in job stability, subjective well-being and happiness, and fertility and family policies. She claims that societies need to develop an understanding of how social and political institutions should be designed. Developing countries often implement social policies and practices borrowed from more developed ones. In this sense, social sciences can contribute to the process. Dr. Karabchuk also mentions the challenges for the social sciences in the UAE and her experience in launching a regular individual survey for data collection, ‘Monitoring of Emirati Youth’. Research efficiency in academia as well as the development of doctoral education in the UAE were other aspects highlighted in the interview. According to her comments, many universities today provide a productive infrastructure for research, which is a crucial determinant of success. In places where the environment is enriched with material, technical, and communication resources, academics are far more productive. Flexibility in timing and 24-hour office availability for the researchers are the most encouraging factors for productive work.</p> Tatiana Karabchuk Copyright (c) 2019-02-02 2019-02-02 22 3 12 19 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-1-12-19 Editor's foreword <p>Dear colleagues,</p> <p>As it has been announced, the Journal of Economic Sociology is developing a new rubric, ‘Debates’. Two extended polemic responses are presented in this issue. The first paper presents a critical view of Rostislav Kapelyushnikov’s essay on the legacies of Max Weber. The second paper is a critical response to the text of Roman Bumagin and Dmitry Rogozin on the survey approach.</p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2019-01-31 2019-01-31 22 3 7 11 10.17323/1726-3247-2019-1-7-11 Entrepreneurial Activity of Foreign Labor Migrants in Russia: Оn the Example of Kyrgyz Migrants in Moscow and the Moscow Region <p>В статье рассматриваются особенности предпринимательской активности иностранных трудовых мигрантов в современной России на примере киргизских мигрантов в Москве и Московской области. Логика работы выстраивается вокруг выявления предпринимательских стратегий, формирующихся в результате взаимодействия структуры возможностей российского общества и некоторых групповых характеристик мигрантов. Условно выделены три этапа развития предпринимательства среди киргизских мигрантов: 1990-е — начало 2000-х гг.; первая половина 2000-х — конец 2000-х гг. и 2010-е гг. На основе анализа материалов 26 глубинных интервью с экспертами и предпринимателями родом из Кыргызстана рассмотрен индивидуальный и групповой уровень формирования предпринимательских стратегий. На индивидуальном уровне наиболее важны персональные характеристики, возраст, удовлетворение первичных материальных задач семьи мигранта, миграционный стаж. Намного более значимым ресурсом, чем наличие российского гражданства, особенно на начальном этапе, оказывается знание русского языка. На групповом уровне предпринимательство киргизских мигрантов характеризуются количественным и качественным накоплением индивидуальных и групповых ресурсов, вхождением на рынок через свободную, а главное — доступную нишу, переходом от купли-продажи к производству.</p> Vera Peshkova Copyright (c) 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 22 3 11 40 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-5-11-40 Basic Income as a Prologue to Social Policy of the 21st Century <p>The conference “Basic Income as a Prologue to Social Policy of the 21st Century” took place in the Higher School of Economics. It was devoted to both the theoretical and practical aspects of basic income implementation. The conference was organized by the Institute for Social Policy NRU HSE, the European Dialogue Expert Group, and the German Friedrich Ebert Foundation in Russia. According to the opinion of Evgeny S. Gontmakher, professor of NRU HSE, until now, there were no such large-scale discussions on this topic. The conference was attended by a wide range of participants from the academic and political sphere as well as by public representatives.&nbsp;<br>Basic income is treated not only as a new measure of social support but as a part of new social policy emerging in the context of income disparities; job automation that changes the conditions and the structure of employment; and population aging. Interconnections of basic income with inequality and pension-system adaptation were discussed as well attempts and examples of foreign projects in the field in Switzerland and Finland.<br>The presentations provided the ability to dispel the myths about basic income, evaluate the effects of its implementation, look at it as a tool for solving different social problems, and formulate the questions that should be asked while constructing such measures of social support. The potential of basic income as a system for the Russian population was also discussed. Most conference participants agreed that it is not an issue for the near future, and a lot of questions need to be analyzed first.</p> Elena Nazarbaeva Copyright (c) 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 22 3 139 145 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-5-139-145 From Ethnography of Organizations to Analysis of the Real Life Circumstances of People? <p>n his new book, Theodoros Rakopoulos uses the anthropological concept of “livelihood” as a new way to connect some big topics—the mafia, the anti-mafia movement, and cooperativism. For several decades, the mafia has aroused great interest among the general public, journalists, and vari-ous scholars: anthropologists, sociologists, and historians. In the 1980s and 1090s, the emergence of legislative framework governing confiscation by the state and the further use of the property of mafia clans were significantly influenced by the activist movements. That is why the analysis of the experience of creating agrarian cooperatives on expropriated lands through the prism of grass-roots initiatives of civil society has become dominant. However, Rakopoulos, who was observing the work of four anti-mafia cooperatives in Western Sicily in 2007 and 2009, came to the conclusion that, unlike administrators, workers are more interested in issues of wages and prices than ideology and civic participation. How do those who work on the land and are not a part of the grass-roots initiatives in the cooperative structure bypass ideology when it contradicts traditional moral codes? How do they reconcile working in an anti-mafia co-op with family and connections in the local community, where it is impossible to take a neutral or disinterested position towards the mafia? How are urban managers struggling with the “bad kinship” of local workers influenced by their own families and friends? Successively, considering the various circumstances of participants (family, reputation, neighborhood, and so on) that affect their livelihood, the researcher concludes that among both workers and managers, there is nobody who would be free from local moral and ethical norms and could look at the work of anti-mafia cooperatives through the eyes of a distant state. Therefore, the politicized cooperatives themselves, contrary to their own ideology, cannot exist as enclaves of good practice.</p> Natalia Conroy Copyright (c) 2018-11-30 2018-11-30 22 3 130 138 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-5-130-138 Effectively Maintained Inequality: The Choice of Postsecondary Educational Trajectory in Russia <p>Because of a number of social and demographic changes in recent years, the amount of available places at the level of higher education has significantly increased, and at the same time, the number of applicants for them has decreased. Theoretically, this could lead to an increase in the equality of access to higher education for different social classes. In the paper, using Russian data for the first time, the theory of effectively maintained inequality is tested. According to this theory, the increase in the number of places at a specific level of education may not lead to a decrease in socioeconomic inequality on this level. This is because inequality will be maintained at the level due to the qualitative difference in the received education. Using data from the longitudinal project, “Trajectories in Education and Profession,” two postsecondary educational choices are examined: (1) the choice between vocational and higher education and (2) the choice between going to a selective or non-selective university. Following R. Boudon’s theory, the effect of the family’s socio-economic background on the choice of an educational trajectory is estimated directly and indirectly (through academic achievement). The results show that after finishing school, the direct effect of the socio-economic background is more important for moving to a more academic trajectory than the family’s efforts to improve academic performance. Even with high educational achievements, students from families with low social status make a choice in favor of vocational education rather than a university. When choosing between selective and non-selective higher education institutions, the impact of the family through academic achievement weakens even more. The characteristics of the family directly affect the choice of the trajectory becoming a key predictor.</p> Tatiana Khavenson Tatiana Chirkina Copyright (c) 2018-11-30 2018-11-30 22 3 66 89 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-5-66-89 Weberian and Anti-Weberian Discourse: To the Question of the Hypnotic Power of Classics on the Example of “Protestant Ethics” <p>The article is a response to the text by R. I. Kapelyushnikov, “Weber’s Hypnosis: Notes on ‘Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism.’” The reasons and main directions of criticism and anti-criticism of the “Weber thesis,” about the emergence of capitalism due to Protestant ethics, are considered. In light of the criticisms of a well-known domestic economist, the Weberian and anti-Weberian dispute has been analyzed around one of the most cited classics, which testifies to the heuristic value of Max Weber’s scientific heritage, which remains relevant today. It should be noted that the 100-year narrative (the first critics of the Protestant thesis appear immediately after the publication of the Protestant ethic) requires more detailed research. Interpretation of Max Weber’s creativity is possible only in the context of the complete collection of works (Max. Weber-Gesamtausgabe [1984–2017]), including the systematics of the sociology of religion (which included “Protestant Ethics”) and, later, the 7-volume edition of “Economics and Society” on the economic ethics of world religions. The uncharted and authentic reflection of the legacy of the classic is possible only in view of a holistic reading of the classic, taking into account the historical, biographical, contextual (in the case of Weber’s theoretical discussions in the methodological dispute and controversy with the materialist understanding of history), categorical-conceptual, and methodological aspects, as well as the receptive and actualizing components. As a refutation of the criticism of the well-known economist, arguments are also presented in favor of W. Schluchter’s “Weberian research program” and the reconstructed paradigm of T. Schwinn and G. Albert. As a conclusion, the main lines of actualizing the legacy of the classic, which originates in the “Protestant Ethics,” are highlighted.</p> Dmitry Kataev Copyright (c) 2018-11-30 2018-11-30 22 3 146 163 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-5-146-163 Social Studies of Technology: Evolution and Interaction of Approaches <p>Digital technologies are being introduced into the practice of users and are being encountered with multiple barriers on their way. The process of production and diffusion of technology and innova-tions is the focus of attention in two disciplinary areas—innovation studies (IS) and science and technology studies (STS). The early IS focused on the diffusion of innovation, revising its model-ing from a linear to an interactive perspective: they based studies on quantitative data and took in-to account institutional interactions. STS as an umbrella of social studies of technology and tech-noscience suggested several diverse approaches for identifying the main strains and obstacles in this process. For example, the area that has become known as social construction of technology (SCOT) focused on the role of users and groups in the production and development of technolo-gies, based on the reciprocity of their interaction (Trevor Pinch; Wiebe Bijker). Representatives of actor-network theory (ANT) developed the concepts of socio-technical systems and frames to reveal the details of the use and “travel” of technical objects in complex networks of relations (Madeleine Akrich; Patrice Flichy). At the intersections of IS and STS, more complex models and concepts are born, such as socio-technical configurations, where social relations give meaning to technological artifacts (Arie Rip, René Kemp). This review presents both examples of classic works in the mentioned disciplinary areas and specific attempts to conceptualize the socio-technical aspects of the diffusion of innovation.</p> Liliia Zemnukhova Copyright (c) 2018-11-30 2018-11-30 22 3 113 129 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-5-113-129 Essential Concepts in Sociology (excerpts) <p>Social life has been changing, that is why sociology cannot stay put. Today, this research field is unbelievably multifaceted from the theoretical point of view; it covers a lot of topics and uses wide methodological tools. Key concepts and ideas play an important role in how sociologists explore societies. However, essential concepts have constantly evolved and changed. This book introduces essential concepts, presenting the basics of sociology as a field. The authors consider each concept in detail, providing not only short vocabulary definitions, but also including historical and theoretical contexts of its emergence and usage, demonstrating meanings and interpretations, and addressing critics and evolution in modern research and theories. This book’s structure allows readers to bridge a history of sociology and its current conditions, tracing the evolution of its concepts. The authors thoroughly selected 70 concepts. The book chapters are divided into 10 main topics. Within each topic, concepts are listed in alphabetical order. This makes searching for a concept easier and more comfortable.</p> <p><br>The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the book’s fourth theme, “Structures of Society,” in which the author reviews bureaucracy, capitalism, consumerism, organization, labor division, education, and religion.</p> Anthony Giddens Philip W. Sutton Copyright (c) 2018-11-30 2018-11-30 22 3 41 65 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-5-41-65 Editor’s Foreword <p><em>Detailed description in the text</em></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2018-11-30 2018-11-30 22 3 7 10 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-5-7-10 Editor's Foreword <p><em><span lang="EN-US">Detailed description in the text</span></em></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 22 3 7 11 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-4-7-11 Is the Social Capital Really Social? Deliberations on Jacek Tittenbrun’s “Neither Capital nor Class” <p>Jacek Tittenbrun, a sociologist specializing in the sociology of economy, authored the book Neither Capital nor Class: A Critical Analysis of Pierre Bourdieu`s Theoretical Framework, for sociologists, economists, and researchers of other social disciplines (e.g., law, cultural studies, anthropology). In the book, written in the convention of critical realism methodology, Tittenbrun presents the scientific achievements of the well-known French sociologist, Pierre Bourdieu, an author who deals particularly with the concept of capital and capital issues. The French sociologist, who sometimes obscures the notion of capital and identifies opposing ownership relationships, is not attached to this book’s contributors, whose theses are expressed clearly.</p> <p>Tittenbrun sets a goal in this book to describe and explain the phenomena of capital and social classes. The research task formulated by Tittenbrun consisted of confronting those discovered in Bourdieu’s regularity, along with his construction of capital as an idea and selected, significant ideas about capital, proclaimed in modern science, mainly by Anglo-Americans. Tittenbrun acquaints readers with a wide and valuable spectrum of views, such as those of Gary Stanley Becker, Kenneth Joseph Arrow, Robert Merton Solow, and others.</p> <p>Tittenbrun makes no reference to the outstanding Russian sociologists who have chronicled the extensive achievements of Bourdieu, but the book is worth reading.</p> Grażyna Musiał Copyright (c) 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 22 3 182 185 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-4-182-185 Debt: 5000 Years and Counting as It Was <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This article presents a review of a conference Debt: 5000 Years and Counting that took place at the University of Birmingham (Birmingham Research Institute for History and Cultures) on June 8–9, 2018. The conference was based on the recent influential book Debt: The First Five Thousand Years by David Graeber. The conference gathered representatives from all social sciences to discuss the understudied topic of history and ideology of debt. The review contains references to several papers discussed at the conference to give an idea of the approaches used in one way or another in many of the papers. The papers discussed in the review were devoted to the boost of micro-credit in Latvia after the 2008 global financial crisis, the ideology of trapped equity that led to this crisis, the attempt to resolve confusion between the view that debts are to be repaid and the view that profiting from lending is evil, credit in the Islamic Caliphate in the 7th to 10th centuries, the long durée of public debt since the Middle Ages to Early Modern times, and the royal debts in England in the middle of the 16th century. The conference was interesting not only because of the importance of the subject but also because of the originality of the format which helped make the event less hierarchical and less dominated by the academic elite. In addition, one of the aims of the conference was to combine academic and activist approaches. Among the participants there were a few activists. This experience is also described in the review.</p> Maria Aleksandrova Copyright (c) 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 22 3 186 192 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-4-186-192 “We Need to Put Things Back to Normal.” Interview with Ole Bjerg <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>An interview with Ole Bjerg, an Associate professor at Department of Management, Politics and Philosophy (Copenhagen Business School), was conducted in May 2018 during his visit in Moscow. Prof. Bjerg has visited HSE and presented a Russian translation of his book Making Money: The Philosophy of Crisis Capitalism [Bjerg 2014]. An interview was taken by Elena Gudova, a junior researcher at the Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, Higher School of Economics.</p> <p>During his presentation Ole Bjerg focused on the issue of introducing e-krona into Swedish monetary system and making money “full-fat” again. The initiative should give power in money emission back to Central Bank and put it under more transparency and control—we’ve been living in a world where commercial banks simply create money for too long. Bjerg suggests that interest toward money and finance is growing both in academia and among ordinary citizens in many countries. After the economic crisis of 2008–2009 it has become obvious that much of what is going on in the society is deeply connected to money, and the level of critical reflection has substantially increased.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ole Bjerg Copyright (c) 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 22 3 172 181 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-4-172-181 Child Support as Multiple Monies: Contribution, Duty, or Care? <p>In many countries, divorced families are still characterized by insufficient involvement of fathers in the care of their children, and Russia is no exception. The issue is especially prominent when it comes to child support payments. This article discusses the ways that non-residential fathers in Russia pay child support. The analysis is based on 18 interviews with non-residential fathers living in Saint Petersburg and Moscow. The research shows that fathers practice a few distinctive modes of child support payment: alimonies (court-enforced payment), informal monthly payments, gifts, and ad hoc payments. Rather than choosing one option, fathers usually combine a few types of payment. V. Zelizer’s theory of multiple monies has been used to analyze the results. Considering child support payments as multiple monies enables us to decipher multiple social nuances imparted through the father’s method of payment: the performance of masculinity, the fulfilment of social norms, and attitudes towards care. J. Tronto’s concept of “an ethic of care” has been applied in the article in order to distinguish between payments-as-care and payments implying alternate meanings.</p> <p>Although child support payments are intended for the child, in most cases the mother is, by law, the recipient, bringing the issue of payments into the field of gendered financial power. The understanding of the gendered dimension of child support helps us to analyze fathers’ non-payment. Fathers rationalize their choices by appealing to the ideology of intensive motherhood, which they use for legitimizing justification of (non-)payment.</p> Ekaterina Ivanova Copyright (c) 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 22 3 101 133 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-4-101-133 Making Money: The Philosophy of Crisis Capitalism <p>In his book, Ole Bjerg presents a philosophy of money in modern capitalism. Issues related to financial relationships are considered with help of the ideas of Slavoy Žižek, Martin Heidegger, and Jacques Marie Émile Lacan. The author considers the existing theories of money, deliberates current economic theories, and reconstructs a process of how banks make money in order to demonstrate the main principles of the functioning of the financial system in contemporary society. He highlights that the question of the nature of money and the question of making money are both political. This book will be interesting not only for economists but also for a wider group of readers.</p> <p>We here publish his “Introduction: Seinsvergessenheit and Money” and the first chapter, “Analyzing Financial Markets.” In the introduction, the author addresses Heidegger’s idea to put the issue of money at the forefront of philosophical research, thus establishing the book’s main idea. Here, he also describes the book’s structure, which is concentrated on the phrase “how to make money.” In the first chapter, Bjerg, with the help of basic ideas of Žižek’s philosophy, creates a view of financial markets and further depicts two schools of speculation on financial markets, technical and fundamental analyses, pointing to their philosophical features.</p> Ole Bjerg Copyright (c) 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 22 3 43 72 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-4-43-72 What Influences Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption: Review of Economic and Sociological Concepts and Empirical Results <p>Starting with classical theoretical works on the nature of addictive goods, an enormous amount of empirical research about determinants of a propensity to consume alcohol and tobacco is published annually based on data from different countries. We chose alcohol and tobacco among other addictive goods because of their high prevalence, their legality in the vast majority of countries, and the possibility of controlled consumption. In many countries and at the world level, measures are being developed to reduce the consumption of these products or to at least encourage more “responsible consumption” (this refers more to alcohol). Although the share of drinkers and smokers in Russia has fallen in recent years, Russia is still among the leaders in both alcohol and tobacco consumption. Despite government measures aimed at reducing alcohol and tobacco consumption, there is no certainty that the observed tendency towards a fall in numbers is the result of this policy and not of other factors, e.g., the effect of a cohort or a change in values towards a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, despite the existing reviews devoted to addictive behavior, we consider it important to return to systematizing explanations for the causes and determinants of the demand for addictive goods. The specificity of this paper is also that we consider the factors affecting both alcohol and tobacco consumption, although they are traditionally considered separately. However, both tobacco and alcohol are so-called addictive goods; therefore, the economic and sociological concepts that explain commitment to them are the same. Empirical studies also use a similar type of model. This review shows similar patterns in the demand for alcohol and tobacco and social and economic determinants. The factors of demand for these goods could be divided into economic, individual, socio-cultural, and external environmental factors (as well as biological factors that are not considered in this paper). The Russian data primarily confirms the theoretical assumptions and empirical results obtained for other countries. It could be concluded that a certain characteristic of Russian consumers is a weaker effect of prices on demand for these goods.</p> Yana Roshchina Mikhail Bogdanov Copyright (c) 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 22 3 134 171 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-4-134-171 Resource Dependence Theory Applied to the Population of Academic Journals <p>The article presents a typology of academic journals based on the difference in the sources of resource dependence. Academic journals are divided into journals existing at the expense of the authors who need publications primarily for academic promotion, and journals for which communication is essential, so they depend on the number of subscriptions. Besides we take into account how researchers connect with a journal—they can have a direct link with a journal by payment (authors in the form of a fee for publication, readers in the form of a subscription) or instead use a corporate agent like an association or a university representing their interests. Typology explains different aspects of academic journals; such as an explicit link to an educational organization, thematic focus, concentration of authors and readers, and quality of articles. The theoretical scheme is applied to journals of Russian sociology. We found two types of career journals. The first type is a corporate journal with an explicit link to an organization. The lion's share of universities create these journals to provide their staff with a guaranteed place for publication. Corporate journals publish almost any article submitted by the authors who are related to the university, which, in turn, finances the journal. The second type is pay-to-publish journals which are open for almost everyone who pays for the article. The wide-spread availability of these types coincided with the publication pressure in Russian academia. New rules for research assessment have changed the demand for journals and have made it possible to launch numerous private journals which hardly contain any peer review. Only in several institutions do authors have strong incentives to publish articles in the journals which are more selective than others. By their very nature, the closest to the journals with a strong communication function are thematic journals with an absence of an explicit link to an organization. Data shows that these journals publish fewer articles; they can be embedded around one organization, but will receive citation attention from different organizations. Higher citation metrics and better articles also distinguish them.</p> Katerina Guba Copyright (c) 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 22 3 73 100 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-4-73-100 Weber’s Hypnosis <p>The paper is the second part of a two-part critical essay on the discursive methods used by the great German sociologist Max Weber in his classic study on relationship between economy and religion The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904–1905). As is well known, the only pieces of empirical evidence that Weber used to verify his Thesis were estimates of the differences in school enrollment between pupils from Protestant and Catholic families in the German state of Baden at the end of the nineteenth century, as provided by M. Offenbacher. These estimates implied that Protestants tended to choose “market” education, while Catholics chose “non-market” types of education. However, this conclusion is based on Offenbacher’s arithmetic error, such that, after its correction, all differences in educational preferences between the two groups (and hence differences in their work ethics) simply disappear. Analysis also suggests that the “Protestant ethics,” as it was interpreted by Weber, is a deeply dualistic concept; de facto, he attributed (for unclear reasons) one type of ethic to workers and an entirely different one to entrepreneurs. The Protestant Ethics discusses in detail the life and ideas of B. Franklin, who was, for Weber, an archetypical bearer of “the spirit of capitalism.” But this is a fundamental misinterpretation, as all of Franklin’s biographers argue. A more serious problem is that the Weberian analytical scheme contradicts the available historical statistics: it implies that, due to the proliferation of “the spirit of capitalism” in England, the pace of capital accumulation in the country in the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries should be very high, while in reality, it was much lower than in other Western European countries. Finally, various attempts to test Weber’s Thesis with the help of modern econometric techniques have mostly failed. The author concludes that Weber’s exegetics of religious texts are entirely or at least partially incorrect, that his claim about the significantly higher economic achievements of Protestants as compared with Catholics is not confirmed empirically, that his concept of “the spirit of capitalism” suffers from unavoidable internal contradictions, that his portrait of B. Franklin has almost nothing in common with the actual man, that his attempt to explain the quick accumulation of capital in England in the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries deals with non-economic phenomena, and that the results of current empirical studies are mostly unfavorable for Weber’s Thesis. However, the Weberian idea about the origin of “the spirit of capitalism” from “the Protestant ethics” has so strong a hypnotic power over human minds that their phantoms will, for a long time yet, excite the imagination of academic researchers and permeate mass media</p> Rostislav Kapeliushnikov Copyright (c) 2018-10-01 2018-10-01 22 3 12 42 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-4-12-42 New Labor — New Challenges <p>This article presents an overview of the key issues discussed at the Scientific Conference in the sessions ‘Labor and employment problems: new challenges and prospects’ and ‘Information economy and labor,’ This article presents an overview of the key issues discussed at the Scientific Conference in the sessions ‘Labor and employment problems: new challenges and prospects’ and ‘Information economy and labor’, held within the framework of the Second St. Petersburg International Youth Labor Forum which was conducted in St. Petersburg on February 28, 2018. The article describes the main ideas discussed at the conference. The main leitmotif of the presentations was the idea that the modern understanding of the problems of labor is very diverse. Young professionals entering the modern Russian labor market face a huge list of problems. The key issues on which speakers constantly focused their attention were the impact of new information realities on the sphere of work, the employment of young professionals in the context of changing labor market demands, and the dissemination of competence-oriented criteria for assessing the quality of specialists. Participants also discussed the dynamics of graduate employment, creativity and flexibility in the demand and development of intellectual work, training in the workplace, and many other areas. The general conclusion of the review, summarizing the work of the Scientific Conference sessions, was that young people want and will be ready for the challenges of the 21st century work context held within the framework of the Second St. Petersburg International Youth Labor Forum which was conducted in St. Petersburg on February 28, 2018. The article describes the main ideas discussed at the conference. The main leitmotif of the presentations was the idea that the modern understanding of the problems of labor is very diverse. Young professionals entering the modern Russian labor market face a huge list of problems. The key issues on which speakers constantly focused their attention were the impact of new information realities on the sphere of work, the employment of young professionals in the context of changing labor market demands, and the dissemination of competence-oriented criteria for assessing the quality of specialists. Participants also discussed the dynamics of graduate employment, creativity and flexibility in the demand and development of intellectual work, training in the workplace, and many other areas. The general conclusion of the review, summarizing the work of the Scientific Conference sessions, was that young people want and will be ready for the challenges of the 21st century work context.</p> Lyubov Lebedintseva Ruben Karapetyan Aleksandr Gonashvili Snezhana Starovoitova Stepan-Arseniy Karapetyan Copyright (c) 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 22 3 150 159 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-3-150-159 Surrogate Motherhood in Russia and in the World: Legal Issues and Vectors of Sociological Research <p>The round table ‘Surrogate Motherhood in Russia and in the World: Legal Issues and Vectors of Sociological Research’ was held at the Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology at the Higher School of Economics on February 22, 2018. At the present time, the theme of surrogate motherhood is highly deliberated not only in Russia but also abroad. Despite the fact that there is a clear worldwide trend of legalizing the service, the question of its legitimization and normalization remains open. In that regard, there is a need for sociological research covering various aspects of surrogate motherhood. The reports presented at the round table were devoted to the complex, multifaceted consideration of the surrogate motherhood market. The participants’ presentations covered a wide range of topics, starting with the adjustment policies of the medical service and constructing a discourse around it, and ending with an overview of the potential risks to the well-being of children born with the help of surrogate programs. Some reports also included the first results of empirical research which allowed participants to focus on the specifics of surrogate motherhood in Russian society. The aim of the round table was to clarify the specifics and the problems of surrogate motherhood in Russia, as well as to determine the vectors of sociological research in this field. The keynote speakers of the session were Olga Khazova (Institute of State and Law, Russian Academy of Sciences, and member of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child), Maria Denisova (LSES NRU HSE), Oksana Dorofeeva (LSES NRU HSE), Olga Doletskaya (NRU HSE), Elena Berdysheva (LSES NRU HSE).</p> Maria Denisova Copyright (c) 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 22 3 141 149 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-3-141-149 Destroying an American Dream: How Does Financial Uncertainty Change Representations about Life in the USA <p>This book by Jonathan Morduch and Rachel Schneider allows us to be immersed in the life of American families and to discover the most hidden area of family life— financial well-being. Reading this book, it is possible to find out how household income is formed, how money is spent, how savings are made, what kind of debt practices are applied and, most importantly, what problems and decision-making processes Americans have to face on this difficult path. The authors compare the financial path of the study participants to a rocky road, and their lives to a struggle in a world of uncertainty. The researchers show that the main problem for people in the US is not low income but instability, which leads to the fact that families live far from the normal financial patterns for almost half the year. The results show how far American families are from the predictions of Franco Modigliani’s lifecycle model and how misunderstood they remain by the main programs of social support which are mainly built around long-term plans and specific goals such as retirement savings, while families need short-term assistance—to live to the next month. The research topic is, of course, extremely urgent, and its implementation deserves recognition in the methodological field of research into the financial behavior of families. This is an example of financial ethnography, which is embodied in the book and can bring each reader closer to understanding how real families live on another continent and what problems they have to face.</p> Polina Zhidkova Copyright (c) 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 22 3 126 140 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-3-126-140 Review of Theoretical Approaches to the Study of the Relationship between Students’ Socio-Economic Status and Educational Choice <p>Major changes have happened in the Russian educational system in recent decades. The number of people who continue studying after finishing secondary school has increased significantly, as well as the number of universities and students. The key predictor of educational trajectory is the socioeconomic status (SES) of the students’ families. A lot of research has been devoted to studying family influence on educational trajectory choice. This article considers the main theoretical approaches to studying the relationship between trajectory choice and student SES in the context of higher education expansion. In addition, empirical studies are analyzed, to test the implementation of the described theories in various education systems. Macro- and micro-theories are identified to explain the reasons for the reproduction of inequality at state and individual levels respectively. Macro-theories describe conditions when inequality persists despite increasing access to education and tell us how to overcome inequalities. These theories are used for comparing students’ cohorts and identifying changes in accessibility to a certain level of education over time. Micro-theories study educational transitions at the individual level and consider the reasons for choosing a trajectory in terms of students’ opportunities, preferences, and limitations. The current review of both empirical and theoretical studies will be useful for future research in this area to make predictions and determine a valid model of the relationship between SES and the choice of educational trajectory in Russia</p> Татьяна Чиркина Copyright (c) 2018-07-15 2018-07-15 22 3 109 125 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-3-109-125 How Hobby Becomes Occupation in Creative Economy <p>This paper is devoted to studying the process of transformation of a hobby into an occupation in the creative economy, specifically in the case of streamers of gaming content. In particular, the main strategies, the prerequisites, and the consequences of deciding to monetize activities and turn leisure practices into a source of income are considered. The purpose of this work was to identify socially determined problems in the process of transforming a hobby into an occupation. For this, 15 semi-structured interviews with streamers and producers of gaming content were conducted and analyzed, which allowed the features and mechanisms of transformation to be determined. As a result, changes in the subjective perception of monetized leisure practices were determined and the main factors contributing to the changes were identified. The roles of the platform, the audience, and professional standards in the process of hobby transformation were also discovered. A further result was the identification of the process accompanying transformation: formalization, defined as the integration of hobbies into external institutional frameworks; commodification, defined as the emergence of practices for the reification of emotional aspects of streamer activity and the implementation of practices for their evaluation and sale; economization, defined as the reorganization of the structure of activities to maximize earnings; and marketization, defined as orientation to the audience and delegation of opportunities for viewers to partially define the structure of activities</p> Александр Алексеевич Алимов Copyright (c) 2018-07-11 2018-07-11 22 3 79 108 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-3-79-108 Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology (an excerpt) <p>This section presents the third volume of Max Weber’s fundamental work Economy and Society which has been translated into Russian for the first time. The third volume includes two works devoted to the sociology of law. The first, ‘The Economy and Laws’, discusses differences between sociological and juridical approaches to studies of social processes. It describes peculiarities of normative power arenas (orders) at different levels and demonstrates how they influence the economy. The second, ‘Economy and Law’ (‘Sociology of Law’) , reviews the evolution of law orders (primarily, the three “greatest systems of law” including Roman Law, Anglo-American Law, and European Continental Law) in the context of changes in the organization of economy and structures of dominancy. Law is considered an influential factor of the rationalization of social life which in turn is affected by a rationalized economy and social management. The Journal of Economic Sociology here publishes an excerpt from the chapter ‘Law, Convention and Custom’ in this third volume, which shows the role of the habitual in the formation of law; explains the importance of intuition and empathy for the emergence of new orders; and discusses the changeable borders between law, convention and custom. The translation is edited by Leonid Ionin and the chapter is published with the permission of HSE Publishing House.</p> Max Weber Copyright (c) 2018-07-11 2018-07-11 22 3 68 78 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-3-68-78 Institutional Matrix of the Social State and Democracy in Russia <p>The purpose of this article is to show that, at the present stage, the institutional matrix of contractual razdatok provides conditions for the social state and democratic development of Russia, and to refute the myth that only market institutions are needed for the development of democracy. The new integralinstitutional paradigm radically changes the view of mankind’s evolution which is regarded as the development of institutional forms of the market and razdatok. At the local level, the market and razdatok are “equal hands” of the state, which equally regulates markets and also distributes resources on the basis of state orders. The reality of the 21st century consists not in the opposition of market and razdatok economies, but in the synthesis of market institutions and razdatok. And so, the dilemma is not a plan or a market, not socialism or capitalism, but a quasi-market or contractual razdatok. Outwardly, both models look similar; resources are distributed on a competitive basis through state orders and contracts are concluded with legal guarantees. However, extractive synthesis creates a quasi-market which leads to limited access orders and protects the monopolistic public rent acquisition by a narrow group of individuals with personal interests, whereas the contractual razdatok model relies on inclusive institutions which ensures the inclusion of all social groups in the process of social development through the redistribution benefits of a market economy. Inclusive synthesis in the form of contractual razdatok gives rise to a new institutional matrix of the social state and democracy for the economy, with both market and distributional prior development. As a result, economic rationality, and not ideological opposition, will determine the use of market or distributing relations through their combination in different forms. The economic course based on an institutional matrix of contractual razdatok in modern Russia will not be a return to the Soviet authoritarian past but will serve as an effective engine for overcoming the systemic crisis and the establishment of a democratic open access order</p> Olga Bessonova Copyright (c) 2018-07-11 2018-07-11 22 3 50 67 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-3-50-67 Editor’s Foreword <p><em>Detailed description in the text</em></p> Vadim Radaev Copyright (c) 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 22 3 7 9 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-3-7-11 Weber’s Hypnosis. Notes on “The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism”. Part I <p>This paper is the first of a two-part critical essay on the discursive methods used by great German sociologist Max Weber in his classic study on the relationship between economy and religion “The Protestant<br>Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism” (1904–1905). The author examines in detail the place of modern (rational) capitalism in Weber’s general taxonomy of the various historical forms of economic organization and describes its major differences from alternative types of capitalism, for example, political, booty or robber, and adventure capitalism. Another important issue also discussed in the paper is the relationship between two central Weberian concepts: protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism. The author shows that Weber’s authentic thesis on the genesis of modern capitalism was fatally misinterpreted by almost all of his critics. Special attention is paid to the religious exegetics provided by Weber in his work. A key point in his theological exercises was a notion of “psychological premium” that adherents of ascetic Protestantism obtained if they achieved success in their worldly activities, such as occupational careers or profit-seeking. In their eyes this signaled that they were destined by God to salvation and thus relieved the burden of religious doubts associated with the absolute incomprehensibility of God’s plans. In such a way Weber explained how Protestantism might become an engine of modern capitalism. HHowever, Weber’s exegetics of religious texts was subject to devastating criticism by Canadian sociologist R. MacKinnon who demonstrated Weber’s deep theological illiteracy. Counter-criticism with a defense of the Weberian analytical scheme was provided by American sociologist D. Zaret. Commenting on this discussion, the author concludes that the arguments of Weber’s critics are much more convincing since his exegetics of religious texts seem to be at best partially, and at worst totally, incorrect. This implies that the pivotal thesis of “The Protestant Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism” of Protestantism as a launching pad for modern capitalism is devoid of solid behavioral foundations.</p> Rostislav Kapeliushnikov Copyright (c) 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 22 3 25 49 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-3-25-49 Interview with Alexander Pavlov <p class="text">An interview with Alexander Pavlov, an expert at the Khamovniki Foundation&nbsp;and editor-in-chief of the news agency “Ulyanovsk — the Сity of News,”&nbsp;was conducted in February 2018 by Elena Gudova, a junior researcher at the&nbsp;Laboratory for Studies in Economic Sociology, Higher School of Economics.</p> <p class="text">Alexander Pavlov talks about his unique experience of research in the construction&nbsp;industry at various levels of decision-making, from obtaining a&nbsp;land plot by a general contractor to buying property by the final owners.&nbsp;Until 2016, cooperation among stakeholders mostly relied on acquaintance and personal connections, while&nbsp;the mere square meter became the main currency.</p> <p class="text">The construction industry functioned quite successfully, largely due to informal agreements and a lack of&nbsp;government presence up to the moment when the problem of defrauded co-investors emerged in political discourse.&nbsp;However, these investors were more likely to be legal entities involved in the redistribution of financial&nbsp;resources rather than potential tenants with mortgages.&nbsp;<br>Attempts to make it all “like in Europe” disturb the existing structure and order, since the state’s main task&nbsp;in this sphere is the distribution of housing regardless of the real needs of population. Simultaneously, these&nbsp;needs have greatly changed from the 1950s rhetoric that “by the year 1980 everyone will get an apartment”&nbsp;towards the quality of housing. Ironically, quality was threatened due to the fact that only the construction&nbsp;teams had actual knowledge of what was happening at the construction areas.</p> <p class="text">Alexander Pavlov’s ‘Saga of the Square Meter’ allows us to have another perspective of the construction industry,&nbsp;but it reveals many topics familiar to economic sociologists as well: a contradiction between informal&nbsp;economic practices and actions of the state; failures of high modernism; the importance of trust because of&nbsp;kidalovo or scam threats; the emergence of a symbolic order based on a new currency, and other subjects.</p> Alexander Pavlov Copyright (c) 2018-07-10 2018-07-10 22 3 12 24 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-3-12-24 “It Is Enough!”: The Life and Adventures of the Post-Soviet Working Class Seen by Through the Eyes of a Foreign Ethnographer <p>This is a review of the new book by ethnographer Jeremy Morris entitled Everyday Post-Socialism: Working-Class Communities in the Russian Margins. The book is based on the ethnographic study of the life and work of the population of the provincial industrial Russian town of Isluchino in the period from 2009–2012. Characteristics of the phenomenon of Soviet and post-Soviet single-industry towns are given. These settlements have many social problems now because of the deindustrialization period during the 1990s. The author analyses the social positions of Isluchino’s inhabitants and describes their families, labors, and biographical traces. This study shows the importance of the transition from the Soviet to the post-Soviet period for the Russian working class. Workers lost their respected status and stable employment during the 1990s and moved to the survival mode, and the elderly and younger generations came to have misunderstandings about the perceptions of their positions in the social and occupational structure. Morris speaks of the women’s role in working class families, describing how their function is to care for and maintain family integrity. The author pays special attention to labor relations at local enterprises and demonstrates the transformation of local businesses into corporate cultures. Rigid managerial models of the business administration changed former soft paternalism in the management of Soviet enterprises. The book also contains a methodological reflection of Morris on his professional role as an ethnographer. This book is of particular interest to sociologists, anthropologists, ethnographers, and experts in gender studies and labor relations</p> Roman Abramov Copyright (c) 2018-04-08 2018-04-08 22 3 208 229 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-2-209-229 Criticism of Interview Approach in Examining Similarity of Appearance of Products Belonging to the Same Product Category <p>Most of the studies examining the similarity of the appearance of products within a single product category, whose results are used as evidence in intellectual property lawsuits, are b ased on the interview approach. Respondents are asked to estimate a set of products from different manufacturers, either in a personal interview, online interview, or test imitating the situation of choice; they are then asked to answer a battery of questions regarding what they have seen/perceived. No matter how sophisticated the testing techniques are, the questions are focused on discovering the similarity (rather than difference) of objects treated by both the researcher and the examinee as if they are absolutely heterogeneous. Having succeeded at finding this similarity is interpreted as proof that one product is seeking to imitate the other. However, in real marketing practice, the situation where two products belonging to the same category do not inherit some common generic traits and perform as though they were originated in a symbolical and historical vacuum is nearly impossible. Most often, sociologists involved in lawsuits as expert witnesses tend to ignore (or remain ignorant of) the factor of generic/categorical similarity and use discovered “similarity” as direct evidence, contravening the basic principle of experimental work— undisputable openness and falsifiability of all results. The overarching goal of the article is to pull the sociological evidence and expertise out of the shadow of institutional games and to create the basis for scientific criticism of methodological decisions applied by sociologists. Having received an order to conduct a substantial research in this field from a large Russian consumer market player, we decomposed our own methodological cornerstones and developed a simple cognitive-oriented experimental plan that made it possible to conclude that not only is there a similarity between the compared goods, but also a certain background level of similarity within the product group. The technique is described in detail, which allows reproducing or criticizing the results obtained. The described methodical decision can be used in other social studies on similar legal cases. Thus, the criticism of the interview approach dominating Russian practice of sociological expertise in intellectual property trials is presented via the description of an alternative experimental plan.</p> Roman Bumagin Rogozin Rogozin Copyright (c) 2018-04-08 2018-04-08 22 3 86 119 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-2-86-117 XIX Апрельская международная научная конференция по проблемам развития экономики и общества, 10–13 апреля 2018 г., г. Москва, НИУ ВШЭ <p>.</p> ЛЭСИ НИУ ВШЭ Copyright (c) 2018-04-08 2018-04-08 22 3 230 239 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-2-230-239 Creolization of Values: How Fair Taxation is Achieved for Everyone <p>Lotta Björklund Larsen’s new book is an ethnography written as a “social biography of things” which is not a rare case in modern Western anthropology. What makes this ethnography special is that the “thing” under study is a report by in-house analysts of the Swedish Tax Agency based on their own two-year research into errors made by small businesses in their annual tax returns. Of course, the anthropologist followed the Agency’s Task Force, not in order to understand why Swedish entrepreneurs make such mistakes, but to understand how the Agency obtains its information about tax compliance and uses it to motivate citizens to comply, and to what extent the Agency itself is shaped by taxpayers’ perceptions of fairness and by their ways of defining the boundaries between private and public and between household and business in everyday life. Björklund Larsen claims that, because of the law’s inconsistency, Swedish auditors work as the law’s interpreters and develop artistic skills to balance two different sets of values—“hard” and “soft.” Hard values of controllability are used to legitimate audits, soft values of empathy help to show society that the Agency collects a “fair” amount of money. Even though the Agency appears to have been very successful in this “creolization” of values over the last few decades, the balancing is always very political and risky, and, in order to save its reputation and to maintain the trust of society in most ambiguous situations, the Agency prefers not to rock the boat and to brush research results under the carpet. I would highly recommend Shaping Taxpayers to anyone interested in knowledge production, technology, and government studies.</p> Natalia Conroy Copyright (c) 2018-04-08 2018-04-08 22 3 196 208 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-2-196-208 The Wages of Destruction <p>The majority of accounts of the Second World War have described Nazi Germany as an uncontrollable monster with a highly industrialized economy. But what if it was not so? What if the European tragedy was not rooted in Germany’s strength, but in its weakness?<br>Adam Tooze has written a radically new history of the Second World War. The author achieved this by taking into account racial relations and politics, with special attention focused on economy. Understanding of the global economy played a critical role in Hitler’s views. He guessed that Germany’s relative poverty in 1933 was conditioned by not only the Great Depression but also limitations of its territory and natural resources. He foresaw a rise of a new globalized world where Europe would be pressed by the unbreakable power of America. There was a last chance: the European superstate led by Germany. However, the global balance of economic and military forces did not initially favor of Hitler. With the purpose&nbsp;of preventing the threat from the West, he sent his poorly armed troops to conquer Europe which led to the crash of his intentions. Even in the summer of 1940, a time of Germany’s great triumphs, Hitler was worried about America’s air and maritime domination, which he was convinced was the result of a Jewish conspiracy. As soon as the Wehrmacht came into Soviet territory, the war turned into a battle of attrition without any hope of Germany’s winning. Because Hitler and others did not accept this, the Third Reich was destroyed at the cost&nbsp;of millions of lives.&nbsp;The Journal of Economic Sociology publishes the “Introduction” to this book.</p> Adam Tooze Copyright (c) 2018-04-08 2018-04-08 22 3 50 85 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-2-50-85 Mobilization of Criminal Law by Business and State: Socio-Economic Status of Defendants and Pretrial Detention in Economic Cases <p>Commercialization of law enforcement agencies and the corrupt prosecution of business in Russia could intensify mobilization of criminal law against entrepreneurs, especially when it comes to business conflicts. Mobilization of law starts with calling the police and continues with the following stages of criminal investigation and prosecution. The legal mobilization can be considered successful when the defendant is detained before trial. Using police data on all defendants in Russia charged with economic and corruption crimes from 2013–2014, I examine how the socio-economic status of the defendant and the type of victim are related to pretrial detention decisions. Results indicate that not only the offense but also the defendant’s criminal history, gender, citizenship, and place of residence weigh heavily in investigatory and judicial decision-making on detention in economic and corruption cases. Controlling for major social and legal characteristics, the analysis suggests that entrepreneurs have a similar probability of being detained as governmental officials and that manual workers and have a lower probability than law enforcers and the unemployed. Office workers at commercial companies and state organizations are treated more leniently than entrepreneurs and have the lowest probability of detention. The probability of detention is higher in cases where the victims were citizens or commercial companies (including entrepreneurs), compared to those where defendants damaged the state.</p> Iryna Chatsverykova Copyright (c) 2018-04-08 2018-04-08 22 3 12 49 10.17323/1726-3247-2018-2-12-49